Native Nations of Southeastern and Southcentral Pa: General Background
This Page: Native Tribes of Southeastern and Southcentral Pa; General Overview
An accurate picture of early Pennsylvania colonial life involves interactive movement amongst many cultures. Many threads weave into the tapestry forming the reality of our first Pennsylvanian forebears . Jane Merritt explains in her book, 'At the Crossroads' 30 that " Until 1750, The Indian and white populations were nearly equal outside Philadelphia, and their relations were relatively fluid. From 1700, a variety of ethnic groups moved into the region north and west of Philadelphia between the Delaware and Susquehanna Rivers. Delawares, Germans, Mahicans, Scots-Irish, English, Tutelos, Shawnees, and Iroquois came together to form new communities, sometimes overlapping and sometimes defiantly separate but invariably connected by interdependent social, economic, and political networks that drew Indians and non-Indians together."30See Footnote Two
While history of early Pennsylvania & the Natives within it is important regarding the region and all our Pennsylvanians who pioneered west in Penna to as far as now Adams County where the most westward of all our Penna ancestors are found , it holds special meaning to the study of our direct James Logan and the Logan related surnames among Philadelphia's powerful & ruling elite. This Subject Title of the Wtihin the Vines website details the Native American history forming the reality and interface of our direct forebears of Pennsylvania, all of whom are limited to south eastern & south central Pennsylvania.
Timeframe for the arrival of the Native Americans across the Berring Strait AND
questions regarding the strait as the entry point for those first Americans
genetic signatures of Siberians and American Indians find evidence that
first human migrations to New World from Siberia probably occurred about
18,000 years ago; new evidence undermines arguments for colonization as
much as 30,000 years ago, but reinforces archaeological findings as well
as linguistic theory that most American languages belong to single family
known as Amerind; researchers detected change in DNA sequence of Siberian
men's Y chromosomes that took place just before first of two migrations
into the Americas, second of which seems to have occurred some 8,000 years
ago; findings are published in American Journal of Human Genetics; map
(M)" From Abstract
of article "New World Ancestors lose 12,000 Years" published in The New
York Times July 25, 2003, by NICHOLAS WADE and JOHN NOBLE WILFORD (NYT)
1242 words . Late Edition - Final , Section A , Page 19 , Column 1 .
"Using radiocarbon dating, scientists found that the Ushki site, the remains of a community of hunters clustered around Ushki Lake in northeastern Russia, appears to be only about 13,000 years old -- 4,000 years younger than originally thought. The new date places the Ushki settlement in the same time period as the Clovis site, an ancient community found in New Mexico, making it highly unlikely that people could have traversed the thousands of miles from Siberia in such a short periodSiberia find melts theory of ice age migration...Other archaeologists, such as Michael B. Collins from the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory at the University of Texas at Austin, believe that early humans from the Japanese archipelago followed whales and other marine food sources across the Pacific Ocean to North America.'If you open up the possibility of water routes, even in the glacial maximum, they could skirt around the edge of the icepack in the North Pacific and come down the West Coast [of America],' he said. From Siberia find melts theory of ice age migrationBy Allison M. Heinrichs, Los Angeles Times, Friday, July 25, 2003 and presented in www.post-gazette.com
'The new age assessments may indicate that archaeologists continue to search in the wrong direction for an answer to Clovis origins,' said Anthony Boldurian, a University of Pittsburgh anthropologist who subscribes to the relatively new idea that the first Americans may have used boats to skip across Atlantic ice floes from Europe, entering North America perhaps as early as 20,000 years ago.
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ON TO: Pennsylvania's Changing Native Powers from Time of Contact . The Effect of Trade: The Beaver Wars & Iroquois Rise to Dominance within this page
With the arrival of the European Colonial Powers encompassing now Pennsylvania came trade, fractious alliances , and territorial wars. The Natives provided furs, the Europeans tools, supplies, and most importantly, guns. Four colonizing powers are involved in the evolution of the Pennsylvania known to our first Pennsylvanian immigrants [ the Swedes, Dutch, French and English ] . All four both purposefully and inadvertantly escalated Native emnities. Colonial competition for native trade and New World dominance forced power shifts and territorial reallocation of Native American peoples of now Pennsylvania. So great was the Native American desire for European goods and guns, and so greedy the European market for furs, that traditional Native enemies engaged in all out and exterminating warfare against each other in effort to maintain top hand in the market place. It took little time for fur scarcity to occur.
By 1640 beavers were nearly extinct in the Delaware valley, just as the beaver and the otter were nearly extinct in the Iroquois League heartland. Loss of access to the prized furs caused continuing pressure of the Native Americans to expand their territories resulting in local warfares of subjugation and territorial domination, a sad but inevitable part of the large scale and wholly encompassing Beaver Wars in which the Iroquois featured dominant.
The Iroquois domination of now Pennsylvania can be considered Northern to Southern. However, it is also true that in the century to follow initial European contact, as the Iroquois League subjugated further southern tribes in regions far south of now Pennsylvania, the newly involved of the Iroquois aligned were involved in the ever expanding Iroquois covenant chain , migrating south to north, into and through Pennsylvania, and always towards the Iroquois League capital at Onandaga in upstate New York.
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The Colonial Powers significant to Penna in the post contact phase have been identified above.
Understanding of the traditional enemies of the Native Americans, the alliances established post contact, the shifting fortunes of the colonial powers and the Native Americans allied or emnified by each has involved the pages of many legnthy books.
Lee Sultzman, in
his excellent pages entitled
Nations Histories , gives detailed account of the culture, homelands,
The reader is strongly encouraged to access Lee Sultzman's pages directly. The following brief history is provided merely to identify the forces forming the Pennsylvania our first immigrant encountered in 1682 and to describe briefly the decades following which pertain to the larger number of our Pennsylvania immigrants. Careful, this is REALLY tricky.
New Sweden was wholly captured by the Dutch in 1655. That same year war broke out along the upper Susquehanna River between the Susquehannock [an Iroquoian language people ] aided by their subject peoples, the Munsee [an Algonquian speaking people traditionally associated with the Lenape/Delaware Nation] and the Susquehannock 's traditional enemies the Mohawk [of the Iroquois League]. Deprived of support from the Swedes, who had lost to the Dutch, the Munsee [again , an Algonquian people often found associated with the the Lenape/Delaware Nation as the most northern among them ] and Susquehannock [Iroquoian language stock and a traditional enemy of the Iroquois League Nations] were forced to ask for peace, to which the Mohawk [ of the Iroquois League] who were also exhausted from the long conflict, agreed.
The Erie of now Pennsylvania [an Iroquoian speaking people known as the Cat People from the French name for them as Du Chat] were soundly defeated by the Iroquois League in 1656 during the Beaver Wars occuring in the period of the Iroquois League's Ohio Valley expansion; The last , nearly invisible group of Erie (by then of now southern Pennsylvania ) did not surrender to the Iroquois League until 1680. Meanwhile the Dutch of New York were involved in the Second Esopus War 1663-64, the support for which caused them to call in the Iroquois League's Mohawks.
Combining with the Seneca [also of the Iroquois League] the Mohawk destroyed the Munsee [Algonquian speaking people often found associated with the Lenape/Delaware] capital at Minisink on the upper Delaware River. In 1644 Dutch New Netherlands became New York, and the Dutch allied natives lost their support. For the most part, the the Lenape/Delaware in the Delaware Valley had not participated in the Esopus War, not because they had no sympathy for the Munsee [again with whom the Lenape/Delaware are traditionally associated ] , but because they had their hands full helping the Susquehannock [their then subjugators] in the Susquehannock war with The Iroquois League. The Iroquois of the Confederacy first went after Susquehannock allies by attacking the Lenape/Delaware villages in the Delaware Valley during the 1660s. In 1661 the Susquehannock were decimated by smallpox, and the epidemic soon spread with equal devastation to the Lenape/Delaware [who had always outnumbered the Susquehannock but had still been subjugated by that ferocious people] . War and epidemic caused another massive population loss for the Lenape/Delaware between 1660 and 1670, but it still took the Iroquois of the Iroquois League until 1675 to defeat the Susquehannock.
It was the Iroquois who signed the later treaties ceding all eastern territory of the Lenape/Delaware to their trading partners, the British. Discussion of the effect and nature of these treaties can be found in the The Lenape/Delaware pages. The treaties signed by Penn Heirs and their agents involving all the land west of the Susquehanna to the setting sun, and , soon after, the Walking purchase for which sale the Delaware and Shawnee went angrily to western Pennsylvania [and the land of the French incursion] continued to haunt the colony. From the Ohio Valley and western Pennsylvania, and through French support, the disenfranchised of the covenant chain exerted great damage on the Pennsylvania frontier during the period of the French and Indian war.
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On to William Penn, James Logan, The Penn Heirs and the Natives of Pennsylvania
James Logan's son William Logan, also of Philadelphia, continued in his father's tradition, and was a loyal employee of Penn Heirs. Were it not for William's death at the advent of the revolution, he would certainly have been imprisoned as a Tory, so uncompromised was his position and intent. James Logan's son Charles Logan removed to Virginia as primary residence during the later 18th century and in marriage to Mary Pleasants, a prominant [also Quaker ] of that state. Their daughter Harriet LOGAN married our Howard forebear and produced his progeny, thus giving us the now discussed Logan ascendancy in our Howard and Allied Lines.
Logan [ direct Ancestor ] , and his relationship with the Native
With the death of William Penn, the proprietary policy of brokering with the natives resident [See Treaties with the Natives of Pennsylvania] and not those claiming domination over them was changed-Conrad Weiser [Influential Indian Trader] and James Logan [Penn family steward, surveyor general, most powerful individual in Colonial Pennsylvania, and direct ancestor detailed in these pages] played key roles in this evolution. Vital to all of Pennsylvania's treaties with the natives until his death, James Logan often entertained hundreds of natives at his home "Stenton" in Germantown, now found in greater Philadelphia. Just as he entertained the Delaware , Logan entertained the Iroquois, with whom, due to the shift in policy occasioned by Penn's more impatient and greedy heirs, Logan's own interest in continued expansion [as Surveyor General] saw fruition.
The initial half of the 18th century in Pennsylvania involved many members of the extended Iroquois covenant chain, some of whom were living in their ancestral homelands in Pennsylvania, some of whom were forced to relocation in or beyond Pennsylvania , and some of whom were migrating through and tarrying in Pennsylvania from their former lands while moving slowly towards the Iroquois heartland in New York.
Chief Shikellamy was sent from the Iroquois capital to live in east central Penna in order to provide a presence assuring that no warfare or hostility occured to interrupt trade between the Iroquois League and their covenant members with the Iroquois trading partners, the British. James Logan, always an able diplomat with the natives of many nations, was a close friend to Iroquois Chief Shikellamy , acknowledging and reinforcing the chief's purpose involving the ever expanding Iroquois League's chain and uninterrupted trade.
Shikellamy did ensure that peace, but he also signed
away lands to the pressing English that were the in fact ancestral home
of the Iroquois subjugated
and their kindred people. The Walking Purchase , negotiated shamefully
by James Logan, is perhaps
the most influential factor causing the Delaware/Lenni
Lenape and their allied nations to terrorize the Pennsylvania
frontier to benefit of the French during the later French and Indian
War, despite Iroquois league loyalty to the
British, Lenni Lenape subjugation by the Iroquois,
and the removal of the Lenni Lenape to western
Pennsylvania and the Ohio Valley still well within the mighty arm's reach
of the Iroquois League.
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On to William Penn, James Logan, The Penn Heirs and the Natives of Pennsylvania
"From the first meeting of the Lenni Lenapes with William Penn, purported to have taken place under an old elm tree at Shackamaxon in October 1682, Indians in the mid-Atlantic region negotiated a common space with European settlers along a shifting frontier where roads both literally and figuratively passed through and between communities, connecting their lives and histories. Here, well-established Indian paths and newly laid colonial roads crisscrossed the landscape, often overlapping. These roads brought travelers along valley floors nestled between the ridges of what Delawares called the Kittatinny, or Endless, Mountains, which linked Iroquoia in the north with the gateway to the Chesapeake Bay. Eventually white inhabitants of New York would use these same paths to reach central Maryland and Virginia. The waterways that connected the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers to each other and to more distant passages of the Great Lakes region snaked through narrow ravines in the mountain ridges, thus providing all who lived in the mid-Atlantic with commercial networks for trade and travel. Indian trails, with names such as the Tulpehocken Path, Nanticoke Path, Allegheny Path, and the Warriors' Path, which passed through wind and water gaps in the mountains, connected communities or provided specific people with access across the frontier. During this period, roads brought together many groups of immigrant peoples who tried, if somewhat imperfectly, to understand each other....
Before 1750, the frontier was relatively openˇakin to what Marvin Mikesell and later John Mack Faragher have called "frontiers of inclusion." It was a region on the fringes of empire, between but not yet dominated by the imperial influences of Great Britain and France. The Indian and white populations were nearly equal outside Philadelphia, and their relations were relatively fluid. From 1700, a variety of ethnic groups moved into the region north and west of Philadelphia between the Delaware and Susquehanna Rivers. Delawares, Germans, Mahicans, Scots-Irish, English, Tutelos, Shawnees, and Iroquois came together to form new communities, sometimes overlapping and sometimes defiantly separate but invariably connected by interdependent social, economic, and political networks that drew Indians and non-Indians together. " 30:: sample chapter of At the Crossroads Indians and Empires on a Mid-Atlantic Frontier, 1700-1763by Jane T. Merritt [book content , availability and sample chapter viewable and obtained via The University of North Carolina Press]
According to Tuomi J. Forrest , and referring
us to Francis Jennings for the information, the actual relationship between
the Iroquois and the Lenape has been misunderstood, and the situation of
the various treaties with these peoples confused as a result. "Penn
and his agents began the process of buying land from its Native 'holders'.
These holders were various Delaware chiefs, and not as legend
has it the Iroquois.Despite the fact that this (mostly) New York State Confederacy of the 'Five Nations' had defeated the Delaware,
they did not have the powerthe sell the land. As Francis Jennings points out, this misreading of the situation resulted from the fact
that the Delaware played the role of peacemaker among various quarreling tribes. As Native women often mediated disputes, the Delaware held the position of the 'woman' in this arrangement. Europeans wrongly assumed that the 'woman' position signified
a lack of rights and lack of power. However, theywere correct in assessing that the Iroquois held the most power, though Penn
thought that politics, at least dealing with Indians,were local so he favored the less militarily powerful Delaware. " 3
"The Lenape (Deleware) word for Iroquois
is Mengwe. Literally this translates as the glans penis. Assuming the Lenape
were not being derisive, then this term may come from the seventeen and
eighteenth social situation.....In order to assure that the Lenape
behaved themselves, Onondagah sent colonies of Iroquois to live among
them. These colonists became the Mengwe or Mingos".15
These are a people associated with Pennsylvania and Ohio history during the time of the Lenape removal further west,
and involving our direct Quaker forebear James Logan. See Mingo Indians, Detailed above.
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for This Page:
1. State Museum of
Summary of the 1681 Charter.
2. From text within the York County History Pages of York County Webpages.
3. Penn and the Indians page of site entitled " William Penn. Visionary Proprietor" by Tuomi J. Forrest
4 Indians, Sources, Critics by Will J. Alpern (Prudential-Bache Securities). Presented at the 5th Cooper Seminar, James Fenimore Cooper: His Country and His Art at the State University of New York College at Oneonta, July, 1984. ©1985 by State University of New York College at Oneonta ["may be downloaded and reproduced for personal or instructional use, or by libraries" ] Originally published in James Fenimore Cooper: His Country and His Art, Papers from the 1984 Conference at State University of New York College -- Oneonta and Cooperstown. George A. Test, editor. (pp. 25-33)
6. SUSQUEHANNOCK HISTORY part of First Nations, Issues of Conesquence pages. Lee Sultzman
7. SUSQUEHANNOCK HISTORY, Lee Sultzman. Part of First Nations Histories
8.Information on the Susquehannock Indians from Pagewise
9. Delaware History by Lee Sultzman.. Part of First Nations Histories
10. Where are the Susquehannock now? part of the pages of BrokenClaw.com
12. Native Americans Post Contact:, from The Mariners Museum, Newport News, Va pages
13. . Internet School Library Media Center,Monacan Indians page.
14. AN AMERICAN SYNTHESIS The Sons of St. Tammany or Columbian Order . [ the footnotes evident in the text takent from "an American Synthesis" can be accessed at the link given in source
15. Iroquois . By: Joe Wagner, with references provided.
16. The Iroquois. by Lee Sultzman. Part of First Nations Histories
17 William Henry Harrison and the West , part of Dr James B. Calvert's pages at University of Denver Website.
At the time of Penn's arrival in 1682, the Susquehannock were subservient to the Iroquois Confederacy, just as their enemies and neighbors, the Delaware , were. The Susquehannock were decimated by war and disease, but the Lenape remained vital.
18. Shawnee's Reservation a detailed site on Shawnee History
19. Shawnee History by Lee Sultzman. . Part of First Nations Histories
20. Marjorie Hudson, Among the Tuscarora: The Strange and Mysterious Death of John Lawson, Gentleman, Explorer, and Writer, North Carolina Literary Review, 1992 [transcribed at East North Carolina Digital History Exhibits]
21. Chief Logan: Friend, Foe or Fiction? by Ronald R. Wenning. The Journal of the Lycoming County Historical Society, Volume XXXVII, Number 1, Fall, 1997
22. Mingo Indians part of The Allegheny Regional Family History Society's Web pages
23. Weiser, Shikellamy and the Walking Purchase By Al Zagofsky
24. Conrad Weiser from the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
25. The Walking Purchase from Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
26. James Logan , Mingo Indian from The American National Biography, published by Oxford University Press under the auspices
of the American Council of Learned Societies.
27. The Lineage of Mother Bedford from Mother Bedford , a website devoted primarily to the history of Old-Bedford County, Pennsylvania during the American Revolutionary War period.
28. Year 1736. part of the webpage entitled "Ben Franklin :A Documentary History" by J A Leo Lemay , English Department , Professor University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.
29. Shawnee' entry from Hodge's Handbook Abstract: The 'Shawnee' entry from Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, edited by Frederick
Webb Hodge (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30. GPO: 1910.)
30. sample chapter of At the Crossroads Indians and Empires on a Mid-Atlantic Frontier, 1700-1763
by Jane T. Merritt [book content , availability and sample chapter viewable and obtained via The University of North Carolina Press]
31. Fort Orange History, part of The New York State Museum Website
32. (New Jersey) Extract from The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145ˇ1953. [726 pagesˇSmithsonian Institution] (pp. 48-55). Presented in pages of the Northern Plains Archive Project web site.
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