Native Nations of Southeastern and Southcentral Pa:  General Background 
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*This Page: Topic General Backgd [You are Here]; Topic: Natives of SoEastern & SoCentral Pa [SEE ALSO TOPIC TOC]; Gen'l Subject Heading: Native Americans of the Now US; Chapter Pa & Our Pennsylvanians [See Also Pa Chapter Index &  Page Map]; Volume: Our American Immigrants
Tome: Within the  Vines Historical Family Study.
*Associated Pages for this Topic : Pa History & Settlement in Brief * Pa History Gateway Page * Our Pennsylvanians Title Page
*Topic Relevance:  The Natives of this region are relevant to both the the Howard and Allied Ascendancy and the Swope and Allied Ascendancy. which together form the genealogical basis for the Within the Vines Website. 
*SeeTopic TOC for specific Tribes and Subject headings with individual Pages within this Site
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Native Nations of SoEastern and SoCentral Pa: General Background. 
PAGE TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • A) Intro  to Subject Material : The Iroquoian & Algonquian Language Groups [Pre-Contact Hist & Tribal Positions] 
  • B) Pa's  Changing Native Powers from Time of Contact to 1682; The Effect of Trade: The Beaver Wars & Iroquois Nation Rise to Dominance in the Region
  • C) The Four Colonial PowersInfluential to the History of Pennsylvania

  • [The Swedes, Dutch, French, English] 
  • D) The Colonial Powers and the Natives of Penna [who fought with whom for whom and why for whom] 
  • E) William Penn, his steward James Logan [[The writer's direct ancestor and His significant role with  the individual and  general populace groups] , The Penn Heirs and the Natives of Pennsylvania
  • F) Our immigrant European Forebears  & the Natives of Penna from 1682 to ca 1750

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    Sources Utilized for page text
    [Text is Footnoted Throughout]

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    This Page: Native Tribes of Southeastern and Southcentral Pa; General Overview
    A)  Intro  to Subject Material [ Natives of SoEastern and SoCentral Penna]: The Iroquoian & the Algonquian Language Groups
    Recent evidence suggests first human migrations to the New World from Siberia probably occurred about 18,000 years ago, not the 30,000 years ago formerly thought accurate. Radioactive carbon dating has some scientists now purporting that the entry to the
    Americas may have occured by sea and not across the now submerged strait as has been long thought .  See footnote three
    At the time of initial European Contact occuring on the Eastern Seaboard  [see timeline for colonization]  the native peoples were largely Algonquian [a language, not cultural definition, they are  found indicated in pink in the map at right  below] while the Iroquoian speakers were primarily inland [and are found indicated in purple ]. 

    There were many Algonquian speaking nations and tribes, of whom Canada's Algonquin nation is just one-The Algonquin nation's own name is frequently found incorrectly used to refer to the larger language group of which they were a part .  Likewise,  there were many  Iroquoian speakers, the best known amongst whom were the Five, & later Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy [AKA the Iroquois League]  with traditional and ongoing heartland in upstate New York . At the time of initial European contact  in the 16th century and early years of the 17th , the Iroquoian speakers were primarily found sandwiched between the Algonquian speakers on the Atlantic seaboard and the Algonquian speakers of the now north central United States . Refer to map enlargement, viewable by clicking to map at right, for a full understanding of the Native Americans territorial position at the time of European contact. 

    All the native peoples had traditional enemies. Prior to European contact some had already formed  famous confederacies meant to stregnthen the individual nations and tribes forming their whole  thus protecting each  from  their common native foes [ie: The Algonquian speaking  Powhatan Confederacy of Virginia encountered by the Jamestown colonists in 1607 -studied as  part of the Virginia and Our Virginians Chapter of this site- and the Iroquoian speaking Confederacy of the Five and Later Six Nations , also known as The Iroquois Leage or  Iroquois Nation.

    The  post contact dominance established  by the Iroquois League over other Native Americans encompassed an area far in excess of  the league nation's  homelands, and involved subjugation of  both  Iroquoian and Algonquian speaking peoples residing in their traditional homelands at the time of contact [See map to right].  t came  to  include the current state of Pennsylvania in entirity , while it extended far beyond that  region. The Iroquois League's history was vital to the Pennsylvania encountered by our immigrant Europeans  who  lived in SoCentral and SoEastern Penna locales .

    Map reflects 
    Natives  at time of contact. 
    By 1682 and Penn's arrival, this map 
    would be very  different. 
    Click on map for the map in entirity 
    and its source details.
    Thus it is that the Iroquois League  of Upstate New York has its own dedicated page amongst this chapter's discussion of  the Native Peoples of south-eastern and south-central Pennsylvania.  The events spurring Leaque dominance in the Penna of our forebears is vitally and inextricably  rooted in Champlaign's 1609 attack  of the Iroquois occuring far north of Pennsylvania-a contact that exerted its effect   through to the French and Indian War of the 1750s in which the Iroquois remained allied with the British. The outcome of that war- so far removed from initial Iroquois League humiliation by the French and the subsequent longlasting emnification of the French by the Iroquois of the League-came to involve British colonial dominance of the Ohio Valley , thus opening the possibility of  unfettered expansion of Pennsylvania to its now known entirity and the United States to its now dominion.

    An accurate picture of early Pennsylvania colonial life involves interactive movement amongst many cultures. Many threads weave into the tapestry forming the  reality of our first Pennsylvanian forebears .   Jane Merritt explains in her book, 'At the Crossroads' 30 that  " Until 1750, The Indian and white populations were nearly equal outside Philadelphia, and their relations were relatively fluid. From 1700, a variety of ethnic groups moved into the region north and west of Philadelphia between the Delaware and Susquehanna Rivers. Delawares, Germans, Mahicans, Scots-Irish, English, Tutelos, Shawnees, and Iroquois came together to form new communities, sometimes overlapping and sometimes defiantly separate but invariably connected by interdependent social, economic, and political networks that drew Indians and non-Indians together."30See Footnote Two

    While history of early Pennsylvania & the Natives within it is important regarding the region and all our Pennsylvanians who pioneered west in Penna to as far as now Adams County where the most westward of all our Penna ancestors are found , it holds special  meaning to the study of our direct James Logan and the Logan related surnames among Philadelphia's powerful & ruling elite. This Subject Title of the Wtihin the Vines website  details the Native American history forming the reality and interface of our direct forebears of Pennsylvania, all of whom are  limited to south eastern & south central Pennsylvania.


    Footnote Three:
    Timeframe for the arrival of the Native Americans across the Berring Strait AND
    questions regarding the strait as the entry point for those first Americans

    "Researchers studying genetic signatures of Siberians and American Indians find evidence that first human migrations to New World from Siberia probably occurred about 18,000 years ago; new evidence undermines arguments for colonization as much as 30,000 years ago, but reinforces archaeological findings as well as linguistic theory that most American languages belong to single family known as Amerind; researchers detected change in DNA sequence of Siberian men's Y chromosomes that took place just before first of two migrations into the Americas, second of which seems to have occurred some 8,000 years ago; findings are published in American Journal of Human Genetics; map (M)" From Abstract  of article "New World Ancestors lose 12,000 Years" published in The New York Times July 25, 2003, by NICHOLAS WADE and JOHN NOBLE WILFORD (NYT) 1242 words . Late Edition - Final , Section A , Page 19 , Column 1 .
    Presented in the NYTimes.com Archives.


     
    "Using radiocarbon dating, scientists found that the Ushki site, the remains of a community of hunters clustered around Ushki Lake in northeastern Russia, appears to be only about 13,000 years old -- 4,000 years younger than originally thought. The new date places the Ushki settlement in the same time period as the Clovis site, an ancient community found in New Mexico, making it highly unlikely that people could have traversed the  thousands of miles from Siberia in such a short periodSiberia find melts theory of ice age migration...
    'The new age assessments may indicate that archaeologists continue to search in the wrong direction for an answer to Clovis origins,' said Anthony Boldurian, a University of Pittsburgh anthropologist who subscribes to the relatively new idea that the first Americans may have used boats to skip across Atlantic ice floes from Europe, entering North America perhaps as early as 20,000 years ago.
    Other archaeologists, such as Michael B. Collins from the Texas Archeological Research Laboratory at the University of Texas at Austin, believe that early humans from the Japanese archipelago followed whales and other marine food sources across the Pacific Ocean to North America.'If you open up the possibility of water routes, even in the glacial maximum, they could skirt around the edge of the icepack in the North Pacific and come down the West Coast [of America],' he said. From Siberia find melts theory of ice age migrationBy Allison M. Heinrichs, Los Angeles Times, Friday, July 25, 2003 and presented in www.post-gazette.com
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    This Page: Native Tribes of Southeastern and Southcentral Pa; General Overview
    B) Pennsylvania's Changing Native Powers from Time of Contact to 1682: The Effect of Trade: The Beaver Wars and the  Iroquois League Rise to Dominance
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      In 1609 France's Champlain introduced the gun to the Iroquois League when ,  assisted by the traditional  Iroquois enemy the Huron, he attacked them in their heartland. The Alqonguian speaking Huron and Ottawa, aided by the French and their weaponry, continued to pursue and harrass the Iroquois of the Iroquois League. The resulting emnification of the French by the Iroquois League and the understandable  Iroquois desire to obtain and master the weapon  used in devastating force against them reached fecund potency once combined with the league's  brillant political alliance skills and ferocious intimidation techniques.  These factors resulted in Iroquois dominance over a huge portion of the now United States, the effects of which can not be underestimated in significance to the description of Pennsylvania encountered by William Penn and our first and subsequent Pennsylvania immigrants, neither to the balance of power of the French and English in the New World, the effect of which was felt by many of our earliest European Pennsylvanians.

    With the arrival of the European Colonial Powers encompassing now Pennsylvania came trade,  fractious alliances , and territorial wars.  The Natives provided furs, the Europeans tools, supplies, and most importantly, guns. Four colonizing powers are involved in the evolution of the Pennsylvania known to our first Pennsylvanian immigrants  [ the Swedes, Dutch, French and English ] . All four both  purposefully and inadvertantly escalated Native emnities. Colonial competition for native trade and  New World dominance forced  power shifts and territorial reallocation of Native American peoples of now Pennsylvania. So great was the Native American desire for European goods and guns, and so greedy the European market for furs, that traditional Native enemies engaged in all out and exterminating warfare against each other  in effort to maintain  top hand in the market place. It took little time for fur scarcity to occur.

    By 1640 beavers were nearly extinct in the Delaware valley, just as the beaver and the otter were nearly extinct in the Iroquois League heartland.  Loss of access to the prized furs caused  continuing pressure of the Native Americans to expand their territories resulting in local warfares of subjugation and territorial domination, a sad but inevitable part of the large scale and wholly encompassing Beaver Wars in which the Iroquois featured dominant.

    The Iroquois domination of now Pennsylvania can be considered Northern to Southern. However, it is also true that in the century to follow initial European contact, as the Iroquois League subjugated further southern tribes in regions far south of  now Pennsylvania,   the newly involved of the Iroquois aligned were involved in the ever expanding Iroquois covenant chain , migrating south to north,  into and through Pennsylvania,  and always  towards the Iroquois League capital at Onandaga in upstate New York.

    Thus, almost immediately post initial contact,  a rapid shift in the pre-contact tribal regions and numbers [affected also by the introduction of European disease] occured. 

    This caused the map to right of the Natives at Initial  Contact  [able to be viewed in full size by clicking on its image] to be changed almostly immediately and  antiquated entirely by 1675, seven years before our first immigrant resided in the regions surronding now Pennsylvania and ten years before the map below was produced [1685]. 

    The segment of the map below, produced in 1685 and seven years before our first immigrant resided in the regions surronding now Pennsylvaniam  can be seen  in larger detail  for ease of reading.  It shows  the settlements of now Pennsylvania [and now Delaware, then part of Penn's colony]  including the new city of  Philadelphia [founded 1682] .This map's elongated view showing an enlarged north west aspect is found just below.

    Brief discussion of the Pennsylvania Influence of the Swedes, Dutch, French and  English follows in this page's next segment .  Beyond it , and still within the page, is discussion of who was emnified by whom among the natives and colonials of Pennsylvania.

    Click on maps for enlargements and source details
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    This Page: Native Tribes of Southeastern and Southcentral Pa; General Overview
    C) The Four Colonial Powers Influential to the Formation of the Pennsylvania known to the first European Pennsylvanians:
    The Swedes, The Dutch, The French and The English


    • The Swedes of New Sweden  ,  South. These were the first colonizers of the Delaware Valley. From 1638-1654 New Sweden involved Fort Christina - now Wilimigton, state of Delaware- and settlements along the banks of the Delaware involving now states of Delaware, Md, NJ and Pa. In 1654 the Swedes lost their settlements to the Dutch. Some of their hamlets, and Fort Christina, can be seen in the map to the right [dated 1685] .
    • The Dutch in  the south and North [the only permanent settlement of which involved New Amsterdam, on Manhattan Island, from which they sent branch hamlets up the Hudson and to the shores of Long Island Sound and to  the South on the Delaware River]. The Swedes came into collision with the Dutch on the Delaware and were overpowered by them.   The English collided with, and finally overpowered the Dutch after several wars.  In the mid Seventeenth century the British and Dutch saw each other as direct competitors and so, several times during this period they were in conflict.  In 1664, Stuyvesant surrendered Fort Amsterdam. In the same year Fort Orange capitulated as well. Both the city of New Amsterdam and the entire colony were renamed New York, while Fort Amsterdam was renamed Fort James and Fort Orange became Fort Albany. The loss of the New Netherland province led to a second Anglo-Dutch war during 1665-1667. Dutch gains in this second war were temporary, but of interest beyond the discussion of Pennsylvania currently occuring is that Dutch war parties extended as far south as Virginia. The writer's  direct ancestor Miles Cary [among the Pleasant  Ascendancy rooted in the Howard and Allied Surnames detailed in these pages ] was killed by the Dutch in Hampton Roads [Now the Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News area] during the Second Anglo-Dutch War and on  10 Jun 1667. With the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War [from 1665 to 1667] the Dutch faded entirely from now United Statesian presence.
    • The Frencheffect on the Pennsylvania of our first immigrants is owed to many factors over much time but springs in large measure to Champlain's expedition into Iroquois League  territory in  1609. It was during this year that the Iroquois first understood the devastating effect of the gun. The decimation of the Iroquois at the hands of the French , who teamed up with the Iroquois League enemy the Huron in a near fatal attack in that year, led to the longstanding emnification of the French by the League members . While settling what we now call Canada, the French also fought vigorously  to establish their dominion over the upper and subsequently the lower Mississippi (their "La Nouvelle Orleans" was founded in 1718) . French strenous attempt for control of the Ohio Valley and continued access to the Mississippi and its waterway upon which in furthest southern aspect lay New orleans came to involve the disenfranchised natives of Pennsylvania who had been forced west by the English colonials , and were more than eager to harrass the Pennsylvania frontier when prompted by  the French, and  during the period of the French and Indian War (1754-1760). 
     Footnote:
    In 1692 , just ten years after Penn's arrival with  his vision of a colony devoid of religious intolerance, the
    Witchcraft Hysteria gripped Salem, Massachusetts.  Dutch struggle against England led to
    the death of Miles Cary [among the Pleasant  Ascendancy rooted in the Howard and Allied Surnames detailed in these pages ]  during the Anglo Dutch Wars  and by theDutch at Hampton Roads in Virginia [1667]  where he commanded Fort Comfort during the final phase of the Second, but not last, Dutch Anglo War . Mile's first cousin Nathaniel Cary was son of Mile's uncle, an early settler of Charleston, Massachusetts, and Nathaniel's wife Elizabeth  was one of thefew persons who escaped jail  when imprisoned as an accused witch.
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    This Page: Native Tribes of Southeastern and Southcentral Pa; General Overview
    D) The Colonial Powers and the Natives of Pennsylvania: Who Emnified Whom ,  When
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    The Colonial Powers significant to Penna in the post contact phase have been identified above.
    Understanding of the traditional enemies of the Native Americans, the alliances established post contact,  the shifting fortunes of the colonial powers and the Native Americans allied or emnified by each  has involved the pages of many legnthy books. 

    Lee Sultzman, in his excellent pages entitled First Nations Histories , gives detailed account of the culture, homelands, villages, 
    alliances, emnities, and warfare amongst the Natives involved in Pennsylvania history , while discussing as well the  European role in Native American territoriy and power restructuring occuring before our the year our first immigrant reached Pennsylvania soil in 1682. It is  from those pages, and particularly Sultzman's History portion of  The Delaware Nation Page,  that the following information is annotated.

    The reader is strongly encouraged to access Lee Sultzman's pages directly. The following brief history is provided merely to identify the forces forming the Pennsylvania our first immigrant encountered in 1682 and to describe briefly the decades following  which pertain  to the larger number of our Pennsylvania immigrants. Careful, this is REALLY tricky. 



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    When the Swedes arrived on the Delaware River creating New Sweden  in 1638 they found the Lenape/Delaware and the Munsee [traditionally included in the Delaware nation] subjected to the SusquehannockThe Dutch, expanding into the area briefly  from their permanent settlement in New Amsterdam,  didn't  bother to consult the Lenape/Delaware and  purchased some of Lenape land [in the region of New Sweden] from the Susquehannock in 1651, causing the emnification of Lenape/Delaware to Dutch. 

    New Sweden was wholly captured by the Dutch in 1655.   That same year war broke out along the upper Susquehanna River between the Susquehannock [an Iroquoian language people ] aided by their subject peoples, the Munsee [an Algonquian speaking people traditionally associated with the Lenape/Delaware Nation]  and the Susquehannock 's traditional enemies  the Mohawk [of the Iroquois League].  Deprived of  support from  the Swedes, who had lost to the Dutch, the Munsee [again , an Algonquian people often found associated with the the Lenape/Delaware Nation as the most northern among them ] and Susquehannock [Iroquoian language stock and a traditional enemy of the Iroquois League Nations] were forced to ask for peace, to which the Mohawk [ of the Iroquois League] who were  also exhausted from the long conflict, agreed. 

    The Erie of now Pennsylvania  [an Iroquoian speaking people known as the Cat People from the French name for them as Du Chat] were soundly defeated by the Iroquois League in 1656  during the Beaver Wars occuring  in the period of the Iroquois League's  Ohio Valley expansion;  The last , nearly invisible group of Erie (by then of now southern Pennsylvania ) did not surrender to the Iroquois League until 1680. Meanwhile the Dutch of New York were involved in the Second Esopus War 1663-64, the support  for  which caused them to call in  the Iroquois League's Mohawks. 

    Combining with the Seneca [also of the Iroquois League]  the Mohawk destroyed the Munsee [Algonquian speaking people often found associated with the Lenape/Delaware]  capital at Minisink on the upper Delaware River. In 1644 Dutch New Netherlands became New York, and the Dutch allied natives lost their support. For the most part, the the Lenape/Delaware in the Delaware Valley had not participated in the Esopus War, not because they had no sympathy for the Munsee [again with whom the Lenape/Delaware are traditionally associated ] , but because they had their hands full helping the Susquehannock [their then subjugators]  in the Susquehannock  war with The Iroquois League.  The Iroquois of the Confederacy first went after Susquehannock allies by attacking  the Lenape/Delaware villages in the Delaware Valley during the 1660s. In 1661 the Susquehannock were decimated by smallpox, and the epidemic soon spread with equal devastation to the Lenape/Delaware [who had always outnumbered the Susquehannock but had still been subjugated by that ferocious people] . War and epidemic caused another massive population loss for the Lenape/Delaware between 1660 and 1670, but it still took the Iroquois of the Iroquois League until 1675 to defeat the Susquehannock.

    Under the terms of surrender, Susquehannock control of the Lenape/Delaware passed to the Iroquois League. Forced to pay annual tribute at Conestoga after 1677, the Lenape / Delaware became part of the "covenant chain" - an unequal alliance in which only the Iroquois of the confederacy  had power or could speak in council. In general, the Iroquois of the confederacy regarded the Lenape/Delaware, and other members of the chain as inferiors. As for the once mighty  & ferocious Susquehannock, a few remnant tribes remained who were  known as the Conestoga. In 1682 they  were encountered by William Penn  who sought treaty with them, only to find they  were subject to the Iroquois of the League, the Susquehannock's traditional enemy, with the Lenape/Delaware , being  Susquehannock former subjects, subjugated to the Iroquois of the League along with them. 
    The Conestoga, a shadow of the great people that the Susquehannock had  once been,  continued in Pennsylvania until the last of them, a wholly passive and greatly diminished band,  were killed by the Paxtang Gang in Lancaster County. The Lenape/Delaware though, were the first to sign treaties with William Penn.  The exact relationship of the Lenape  to the Iroquois is a source of historical dispute involving understanding of the Native American  use of the term "woman" as informing of an  entirely subjugated and subservient peoples vs a people serving as peacemaker and treaty former [ the traditional role of women in the matriarchal society's involved].  [See Footnote One]

    It was the Iroquois who signed the later treaties ceding all eastern territory of the Lenape/Delaware to their trading partners, the British. Discussion of the effect and nature of these treaties can be found in the The Lenape/Delaware pages. The treaties signed  by Penn Heirs and their agents involving all the land west of the Susquehanna to the setting sun, and , soon after, the Walking purchase for which sale the Delaware and Shawnee went angrily to western Pennsylvania [and the land of the French incursion] continued to haunt the colony.  From the Ohio Valley and western Pennsylvania, and through French support, the disenfranchised of the covenant chain exerted great damage on the Pennsylvania frontier during the period of the French and Indian war.

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    This Page: Native Tribes of Southeastern and Southcentral Pa; General Overview
    E) William Penn,  The Penn Heirs, James Logan, and the Natives of Pennsylvania
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    William Penn visited his colony only twice, and he never remained there long. James Logan, direct ancestor to this writer, was Penn's secretary, & the same James Logan was Penn's steward in the New World from 1699 to the end of Penn's life.  On William Penn's death, Logan  continued service to the Penn heirs; Throughout James Logan's  long life he was arguably  the most influential person [and most wealthy]  in the whole of the Pennsylvania colony.  William Penn's demand for diplomacy with the originals added greatly to Pennsylvania's early peaceful success, for  Penn maintained the goal to peace was to  treat directly and fairly with the Indians. On arrival Penn dealt directly with the resident native population, not their [Iroquois Confederacy] dominators. But William Penn visited his colony only twice and tarried both times but a short interval; He left the running of his colony to the his trusted steward  James Logan . The Penn heirs,  facing the reluctance of natives ever more encroached upon, were not as patient as William himself and diplomacy with the natives was significantly changed. Through this period, James Logan remained the Penn family steward in their colony. 

    James Logan's son William Logan, also of Philadelphia, continued in his father's tradition, and was a loyal employee of Penn Heirs. Were it not for William's death at the advent of the revolution, he would certainly have been imprisoned as a Tory, so uncompromised was his position and intent.  James Logan's son Charles Logan removed to Virginia as  primary residence during the later 18th century and in marriage to Mary Pleasants, a prominant [also Quaker ] of that state. Their daughter  Harriet LOGAN married our Howard forebear and produced his progeny, thus giving us the now discussed Logan ascendancy in our Howard and Allied Lines. 

    James Logan [  direct Ancestor ] , and his relationship with  the Native Americans
    With the death of  William Penn, the proprietary policy of brokering with the natives resident [See Treaties with the Natives of Pennsylvania] and not those claiming domination over them was changed-Conrad Weiser [Influential Indian Trader] and James Logan [Penn family steward, surveyor general, most powerful individual in Colonial Pennsylvania, and direct ancestor detailed in these pages] played key roles in this evolution. Vital to all of Pennsylvania's treaties with the natives until his death, James Logan  often entertained hundreds  of natives at his home "Stenton" in Germantown, now found in  greater Philadelphia.  Just as he entertained the Delaware ,  Logan entertained the Iroquois,  with whom,  due to the shift in policy occasioned by Penn's more impatient and greedy heirs, Logan's own interest  in continued expansion [as Surveyor General] saw fruition.

    The initial half of the 18th century in  Pennsylvania involved many members of the extended Iroquois covenant chain, some of whom were  living in their ancestral homelands in Pennsylvania, some of whom were  forced to relocation in or beyond Pennsylvania , and some of whom were migrating through and tarrying in  Pennsylvania from their former lands while moving slowly towards the Iroquois heartland in New York. 

    Chief Shikellamy was sent from the Iroquois capital  to live in east central Penna in order to provide a  presence assuring that no warfare or hostility occured to interrupt trade between the Iroquois League and their covenant  members  with the Iroquois trading partners, the British.  James Logan,  always an able diplomat with the natives of many nations, was  a close friend to Iroquois Chief Shikellamy , acknowledging and reinforcing  the chief's  purpose involving the ever expanding Iroquois League's  chain and   uninterrupted trade. 

    Chief Shikellamy   did ensure that peace, but he also  signed away lands to the pressing English that were the in fact ancestral home of the Iroquois subjugated Delaware/Lenni Lenape  and their kindred people.  The Walking Purchase , negotiated shamefully by James Logan, is perhaps the most influential factor  causing the Delaware/Lenni Lenape and their allied nations  to terrorize the Pennsylvania frontier to benefit of the French during the later  French and Indian War, despite Iroquois league loyalty to the British, Lenni Lenape subjugation by the Iroquois, and the removal of the Lenni Lenape to western Pennsylvania and the Ohio Valley still well within the mighty arm's reach  of the Iroquois League
     James Logan, Conrad Weiser and  Iroquois League interest in placating their trading partners the British despite damage to the covenant chain by unfair practice regarding the League's  lesser members , all gave impetus to   the policies evident in the treaties signed  post William Penn's death, which in fact involved lands of other Native Americans  resident in the portions of Pennsylvania involved [See Shawnee , Munsee and Delaware Indians] . Logan  had no small role in the planning and execution of both the Purchase of "All Lands West of the Susquehanna" from the Iroquois in 1737 and The Walking Purchase. of 1738.  As Surveyor General of the colony, he also had significant hand in  the manner in which  white settlement occured. His friendship with the Iroquois Chief Shikellamy,caused that Chief to name a younger son for him. One of those Chief's olders sons  would also become known [ incorrectly and for white confusion in regards to which of the chief's sons recieved the name of the Chief's white friend]   as the  angry, Mingo Chief Logan.  Comfortable with white culture and always living near it, the murder of Chief Logan's  family by white settlers in the region of now Ohio led to his radicalization, warfare against white settlers, and ultimate murder by his own  confused & beleaguered people.

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    G) The Natives WithinThe Pennsylvania of our European Forebears in General
    The Following is From "At the Crossroads" by Jane T Merritt
    Footnote Two: 
    "From the first meeting of the Lenni Lenapes with William Penn, purported to have taken place under an old elm tree at Shackamaxon in October 1682, Indians in the mid-Atlantic region negotiated a common space with European settlers along a shifting frontier where roads both literally and figuratively passed through and between communities, connecting their lives and histories. Here, well-established Indian paths and newly laid colonial roads crisscrossed the landscape, often overlapping. These roads brought travelers along valley floors nestled between the ridges of what Delawares called the Kittatinny, or Endless, Mountains, which linked Iroquoia in the north with the gateway to the Chesapeake Bay. Eventually white inhabitants of New York would use these same paths to reach central Maryland and Virginia. The waterways that connected the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers to each other and to more distant passages of the Great Lakes region snaked through narrow ravines in the mountain ridges, thus providing all who lived in the mid-Atlantic with commercial networks for trade and travel. Indian trails, with names such as the Tulpehocken Path, Nanticoke Path, Allegheny Path, and the Warriors' Path, which passed through wind and water gaps in the mountains, connected communities or provided specific people with access across the frontier. During this period, roads brought together many groups of immigrant peoples who tried, if somewhat imperfectly, to understand each other.[3]...
    Before 1750, the frontier was relatively openˇakin to what Marvin Mikesell and later John Mack Faragher have called "frontiers of inclusion." It was a region on the fringes of empire, between but not yet dominated by the imperial influences of Great Britain and France. The Indian and white populations were nearly equal outside Philadelphia, and their relations were relatively fluid. From 1700, a variety of ethnic groups moved into the region north and west of Philadelphia between the Delaware and Susquehanna Rivers. Delawares, Germans, Mahicans, Scots-Irish, English, Tutelos, Shawnees, and Iroquois came together to form new communities, sometimes overlapping and sometimes defiantly separate but invariably connected by interdependent social, economic, and political networks that drew Indians and non-Indians together.[4] " 30:: sample chapter of At the Crossroads  Indians and Empires on a Mid-Atlantic Frontier, 1700-1763by Jane T. Merritt [book content , availability and sample chapter  viewable and obtained via The University of North Carolina Press



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    footnote one: On the relationship of the Iroquois to the Lenape and about the Mingo

    According to Tuomi J. Forrest , and referring us to Francis Jennings for the information, the actual relationship between the Iroquois and the Lenape has been misunderstood, and the situation of the various treaties with these peoples confused as  a result. "Penn and his agents began the process of buying land from its Native 'holders'. These holders were various Delaware chiefs, and not as legend
    has it the Iroquois.Despite the fact that this (mostly) New York State Confederacy of the 'Five Nations' had defeated the Delaware,
    they did not have the powerthe sell the land. As Francis Jennings points out, this misreading of the situation resulted from the fact
    that the Delaware played the role of peacemaker among various quarreling tribes. As Native women often mediated disputes, the Delaware held the position of the 'woman' in this arrangement. Europeans wrongly assumed that the 'woman' position signified
    a lack of rights and lack of power. However, theywere correct in assessing that the Iroquois held the most power, though Penn
    thought that politics, at least dealing with Indians,were local so he favored the less militarily powerful Delaware. " 3

    "The Lenape (Deleware) word for Iroquois is Mengwe. Literally this translates as the glans penis. Assuming the Lenape were not being derisive, then this term may come from the seventeen and eighteenth social situation.....In order to assure that the  Lenape behaved themselves,  Onondagah sent colonies of Iroquois to live among them. These colonists became the Mengwe or Mingos".15
    These are a people associated with Pennsylvania and Ohio history during the time of the Lenape removal further west,
    and involving our direct Quaker forebear James Logan. See Mingo Indians, Detailed above.



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    Sources for This Page:
     

    1. State Museum of Pennsylvania. Brief Summary of the 1681 Charter.
    2. From text within the  York County History Pages of York County Webpages.
    3. Penn and the Indians page of site entitled " William Penn. Visionary Proprietor"  by  Tuomi J. Forrest
    4 Indians, Sources, Critics by Will J. Alpern (Prudential-Bache Securities). Presented at the 5th Cooper Seminar, James Fenimore Cooper: His Country and His Art at the State University of New York College at Oneonta, July, 1984. ©1985 by State University of New York College at Oneonta ["may be downloaded and reproduced for personal or instructional use, or by libraries" ] Originally published in James Fenimore Cooper: His Country and His Art, Papers from the 1984 Conference at State University of  New York College -- Oneonta and Cooperstown. George A. Test, editor. (pp. 25-33)
    5. Kittanning-pa.com
    6.  SUSQUEHANNOCK HISTORY part of First Nations, Issues of Conesquence pages. Lee Sultzman
    7. SUSQUEHANNOCK HISTORY, Lee Sultzman. Part of First Nations Histories
    8.Information on the Susquehannock Indians from Pagewise
    9.  Delaware History by Lee Sultzman.. Part of First Nations Histories
    10. Where are the Susquehannock now?  part of the pages of BrokenClaw.com
    12. Native Americans Post Contact:, from The Mariners Museum, Newport News, Va pages
    13. .  Internet School Library Media Center,Monacan Indians page.
    14. AN AMERICAN SYNTHESIS The Sons of St. Tammany or Columbian Order . [ the footnotes evident in the text takent from "an American Synthesis" can be accessed at the link given in source
    15. Iroquois . By: Joe Wagner, with references provided.
    16. The Iroquois. by Lee Sultzman. Part of First Nations Histories
    17 William Henry Harrison and the West  , part of Dr James B. Calvert's pages at University of Denver Website.
    At the time of Penn's arrival in 1682, the Susquehannock were subservient to the Iroquois Confederacy, just as their enemies and neighbors, the Delaware , were. The Susquehannock were decimated by war and disease, but the Lenape remained vital.
    18. Shawnee's Reservation  a detailed site on Shawnee History
    19. Shawnee History by Lee Sultzman. . Part of First Nations Histories
    20. Marjorie Hudson, Among the Tuscarora: The Strange and Mysterious Death of John Lawson, Gentleman, Explorer, and Writer,  North Carolina Literary Review, 1992 [transcribed at East North Carolina Digital History Exhibits]
    21. Chief Logan: Friend, Foe or Fiction?  by Ronald R. Wenning.  The Journal of the Lycoming County Historical Society, Volume XXXVII, Number 1, Fall, 1997
    22. Mingo Indians part of The Allegheny Regional Family History Society's Web pages
    23. Weiser, Shikellamy and the Walking Purchase By  Al Zagofsky
    24. Conrad Weiser from the   Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
    25. The Walking Purchase from   Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
    26. James Logan , Mingo Indian from The American National Biography, published by Oxford University Press under the auspices
     of the American Council of Learned Societies.
    27. The Lineage of Mother Bedford from Mother Bedford ,  a website devoted primarily to the history of Old-Bedford County, Pennsylvania during the American Revolutionary War period.
    28.  Year 1736.  part of the webpage entitled "Ben Franklin :A  Documentary History"  by J A Leo Lemay , English Department , Professor University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.
    29. Shawnee' entry from Hodge's Handbook Abstract: The 'Shawnee' entry from Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, edited by Frederick
    Webb Hodge (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30. GPO: 1910.)
    30. sample chapter of At the Crossroads  Indians and Empires on a Mid-Atlantic Frontier, 1700-1763
    by Jane T. Merritt [book content , availability and sample chapter  viewable and obtained via The University of North Carolina Press]
    31. Fort Orange History, part of The New York State Museum Website
    32. (New Jersey) Extract from  The Indian Tribes of North America  by John R. Swanton.  Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145ˇ1953. [726 pagesˇSmithsonian Institution] (pp. 48-55). Presented in pages of the Northern Plains Archive Project web site.


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