The Lenni Lenape were an Algonquian speaking people who inhabited the watersheds of the Delaware and the region surrounding the bay into which they emptied, likewise named. They were present in parts of the now states of New York, New Jersey and Delaware. The island of Manhattan and the present soil of New York City outside that borough were originally Lenape territory . Theirs was a matrilineal culture. "Lenapehoking" , their homeland, was an area along the mid-Atlantic coast between the Hudson and Delaware river valleys, and their villages were scattered along the creeks and rivers of New Jersey, southern New York, eastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware. They were the first people with whom William Penn treated for the land he acquired from England.
The Algonquin speaking
Lenni Lenapi are usually divided into three subtribes that shared
general language affiliation but no real political alliance. The Munsee
identified themselves as Lenape, an ancient Algonquian word
roughly translated as "the people" or "the original people'". Because
of the difference in the Munsee dialect from the Unami and Unalactigo
some scholars argue that the Munsee , with a language more closely
related to the more northern Mahican [aka Mohican] than to the dialect
of the Unami and Unalactigo , should not be considered Delaware.
Today there are Indians known as the Munsee-Mohicans . Some maps
[see example] of Native American Tribes seem to seperate the Delaware
, Unalactigo and Munsee into seperate people.
As stated above, The Lenni Lenape inhabited the watersheds of the Delaware and the
region surrounding the bay into which they emptied, likewise named. They were present in parts of
the now states of New York, New Jersey and Delaware . The island of Manhattan and the present
soil of New York City outside that borough were originally Lenape territory .
Theirs was a matrilineal culture. "Lenapehoking" , their homeland, was
an area along the mid-Atlantic coast between the Hudson and Delaware river valleys,
and their villages were scattered along the creeks and rivers of New Jersey,
southern New York, eastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware.
"Beginning in 1626, the [editor's note, very powerful ] Susquehannock attacked the Delaware and by 1630 had forced many of them either south into Delaware or across the river into New Jersey. The Dutch accepted the outcome, but when they began to trade with the Susquehannock, they were pleased to discover the Susquehannock (skilled hunters and trappers) had more (and better) furs than the Delaware. By the time the Swedes made their first settlements on the Delaware River in 1638, the Delaware were entirely subject to the Susquehannock and needed permission from the "Minqua" to sign any treaties.".6
But the Susquehannock themselves were devasted by epidemic and war in the greatly influential period involved in post European contact. Pennsylvania was the 12th of the original 13 colonies [Georgia being the last], and so, the natives of Pennsylvania had been exposed to other European cultures prior to the arrival of the British to the region and the regional aspect of the Beaver Wars had already influenced Pennsylvania Native history. By the time of Penn's arrival in 1682, when he sought treaties with the native peoples involved in his new acquisiton, he found the Susquehannock unwilling to sign treaty with him, saying they were subservient to the New York based Iroquois who were in large part responsible for the Susquehannock decimation. The Lenape [otherwise known as the Delawre] did sign treaties with Penn, but they also are found later characterized as subservient to the more powerful and far reaching Iroquois Nation who had "reduced the Lenni Lenape, or Delawares, to Iroqois vassalage and disarmed them. They welcomed William Penn peacefully, but more of their land was coveted. As their lands were seized, they moved to the recently-emptied Wyoming (along the Susquehanna near Wilkes-Barre), and finally west of the Alleghenies, as even these lands were taken. As they moved, the Delaware recovered their warrior skills to a great degree, becoming enemies of the British." 17
Some historians imply that the Lenape were subjugated along with and at the time of subjugation of their own previous subjugators the Susquehnnocks [ca 1660] while others study the langauge and culture of the Lenape and Iroquois people involved and imply a misunderstanding of the term and use of the word "woman" used to describe the Lenape relationship to the Iroquois, seeming to infer that the dominance of the Iroquois over the Lenape was never as entire as history has painted, and was instead the result of excellent diplomatic Iroquois skills in which the desires of that tribe were seen as more advantageous to the powers of Philadelphia than the desires and place of the long term natives, the Lenape, with whom William Penn first treated.
Penn described the Lenape in 1683 as "generally tall, straight, well built, and of singular proportion; they tread strong and clever, and mostly walk with a lofty chinÖ. Of complexion black, but by design,Ö. They grease themselves with bear's fat clarified, and using no defense against the sun or weather, their skins must needs be swarthy." [Penn Entry in Entirity].
1736 appears to be the year marking the Iroquois conquering of the Delaware, if not by war, then by stregnth of numbers and influence on the Pennsylvanian Colonial authority. "Conrad Weiser learned, about 1 September , that a group of Six Nations chiefs were on their way to Pennsylvania. They were guided to James Logan's home at Stenton where, 28 September, the treaty began. Franklin reported the presence of the Indians in the 7 October Gazette. The treaty continued at the Friends' Great Meeting House in Philadelphia and concluded on 14 October, with the two sides renewing the earlier treaty of friendship, 1732. A Treaty of Friendship held with the Chiefs of the Six Nations at Philadelphia (1737) was the first of a series of Indian treaties printed by Franklin. Then the chiefs met privately with John Penn . He reminded them that they had previously sold all the land along the Susquehanna and asked why they had lately laid claims to those lands. On 11 October the Indians confirmed the sale. The Gazette, 14 October, celebrated Pennsylvania's peaceful Indian policy. At Conrad Weiser's home, 25 October, the chiefs also sold land along the Delaware River below the Kittatinny Hills, and a group of four chiefs warned the Proprietors that the DelawareIndians no longer owned any land and were not to be trusted. " Year 1736. part of the Ben Franklin a Documentary History by J A Leo Lemay , Professor University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.
"Occupying the area between northern Delaware and New York, the Lenape were not really a single tribe in 1600 but a set of independent villages and bands. There was no central political authority, and Lenape sachems, at best, controlled only a few villages usually located along the same stream. The three traditional Lenape divisions (Munsee, Unami, and Unalactigo) were based on differences in dialect and location. There was, however, a common sense of being 'Lenape' from a shared system of three matrilineal clans which cut across their village and band organizations. Among the Unami and Unalactigo, the Turtle clan ranked first, followed by the Wolf and Turkey. The Munsee apparently only had Wolf and Turkey." 9 Reference to a fourth band, the Crow, responsable for preparation of the dead and at the bottom tier in social status, can be found in some sources. The Munsee are provided their own page in deference to the many historians who feel that they do not belong within the Delaware affliliation proper.
"In 1600 the Delaware may have numbered as many as 20,000, but several wars and at least 14 separate epidemics reduced their population to around 4,000 by 1700 - the worst drops occurring between 1655 and 1670. Since the Delaware afterwards absorbed peoples from several other Algonquin-speaking tribes, this figure remained fairly constant until 1775. By 1845 it had fallen to combined total of about 2,000 Delaware and Munsee in both the United States and Canada. The 1910 census gave about the same result, but the current Delaware population has recovered to almost 16,000, most of whom live in Oklahoma. Nearly 10,000 Delaware are in eastern Oklahoma and, until very recently, were considered part of the Cherokee Nation. After a long struggle with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), they regained federal recognition in September, 1996 as the Delaware Tribe of Indians with their tribal offices in Bartlesville. The other federally recognized group is the Delaware Tribe of Western Oklahoma. Sometimes called the Absentee Delaware, its 1,000 members are descendants of a Missouri-Texas splinter group, many of whom reside near of the tribal headquarters at Anadarko."9
Chinklacamoose (Seneca), Goshgoshunk (Seneca-3), Hickorytown (Munsee), Jedakne, John's Town (Munsee), Kickenapawling, Kittaning (Attigué) (Caughnawaga), Kushkuski (Kuskuski), Lawunkhannek (Seneca), Loyalhannon, Mahusquechikoken (Munsee-Seneca), Nescopeck (Shawnee), Ostonwackin (Cayuga-Oneida), Shamokin(Shawnee-Tutelo), Shenango (3), Sheshequin (Seneca), Skenandowa, Tioga, Venango(Seneca-Shawnee-Wyandot-Ottawa), Wyalusing (Munsee), and Wyoming (Munsee-Shawnee-Mahican-Nanticoke) 16
See The Current Number of Persons identified as Delaware [11,000] and the number of lpersons remaining speaking their language [one]
The Lenni Lenape, and the Munsee or Minsi [ a closely related group that also called itself Lenape-see above] were subjugated by the Susquehannock, but the Susquehannock fell to Iroquois dominance and were themselves subjugted. In 1694, the Lenape and Munsee had been subjugated by the more powerful Iroquois Confederacy to the north. The story of this sad event , and hundreds of years of collective history before that , is told in their Wallam Olum, a remarkable historical text, given in 1820 by the last of its Lenape wards to a Moravian Missionary who had long lived amongst them . The Wallum Olum ["Red Record" in English and found spelled in a variety of ways] owes its name to the red ochre paint used for its production, and the position of the color red as sacred among the people who created it. The Wallam Olum details the history of the Lenni Lenape from creation story through migration across what sounds like the Berring Strait, and on to their settlement in the eastern now United States where the Europeans first encountered them; It is in essence a bible , genealogy, and history combined. While it is questionable that in fact it was centuries old at the time it was given to the Moravian, it never-the-less holds great significant historical importance, for it represents the oral tradition of the Lenni Lenape passed down through its story keepers through the generations, and an attempt to preserve that history at a time when the safekeeping of this record among the peoples it documented could no longer be assured. It is evident that ancient oral tradition abound within it. "By reviewing the text, the evolution of their language is apparent. Certain lines and passages of archaic text were repeated and handed down from generation to generation. (McCutchen, pg. 6,15-16)" 15The Lenape , an Algonquin speaking people, were referred to as grandfather by many Algonquin speaking tribes. One site discussing the Red Record purports that the creation story of the Wallum Olum, because it is shared by many other Native Americans, furthers the Lenape position as "founding fathers of: The Mohicans; the Nanticokes; the Shawnee; the Ojibwa; The Cree; the Powhatan; the Abenaki; the Massachusetts; the Blackfoot; the Cheyenne; the Munsees; the Yuroks; the Wiyots; the Algonkins; the Montagnais; the Arapahoe; the Menominee; the Potowatomi; the Ottowa; the Sauk; the Fox; the Nipmuc; the Narraganset; the Pequot; the Wampanoag; the Montauk; the Illinois; the Conoy, and surely many others not discovered, all of whom tell the same story of creation and migration, all of whom refer to the Lenni-Lenape as 'Grandfather', and all of whom defer to the Lenni-Lenape as their ancestral elders. " 14 Some historians remark that portions of The Red Record relating the pre contact period seem to have been influenced by events and beliefs disclosed to the natives in the post contact period making evaluation of what is actually unadulterated tribal history from that which is influenced by outsiders a matter of continued study.
Brinton, in his 1884 interpretation of the Wallam Olum, states that in essence and part the history describes that "In the sixteenth century the Iroquois tribes seized and occupied the whole of the Susquehanna valley, thus cutting off the eastern from the western Algonkins, and ended by driving many of the Lenape from the west to the east bank of the Delaware"16
Use of the word woman by the Iroquois to describe the Lenape's status to them is known to have occured in the era of The Walking Purchase, but it is the white civilization misunderstanding of the meaning of this term as utilized by the natives which has [mis]informed the relationship between the Iroquois, the Lenape, and more specifically the treaties that existed between Penn, Penn's agents, and the Lenape as signed by the Iroquois. The term "Woman" when utilized for the Lenni Lenape by the Iroquois referred to their role as "Peacekeeper" in this dispute, an understanding often ignored or unreferenced when the treaties involving Lenni Lenape lands and the Iroquois signing off for them are discussed. See footnote one
In the the infamous Walking Purchase , the honor and intent of William Penn was not maintained by his succesors or their agent James Logan [ our direct via the Howard Ascendancy] who continued in the Penn family service after his first Penn employer William's death. The Walking Purchase seriously alienated the Lenape both psychologically and physically from the whites with whom it was brokered, and the white frontier of Pennsylvania of the late 1740s and first half of the 1750s paid dearly for the abuse. See Native American Actions in Pennsylvania during the French and Indian War, and the effect of the Walking Purchase on our forebears during that frightening time of Pennsylvania's colonial history.
According to Tuomi J. Forrest , and referring
us to Francis Jennings for the information, the actual relationship between
the Iroquois and the Lenape has been misunderstood, and the situation of
the various treaties with these peoples confused as a result. "Penn
and his agents began the process of buying land from its Native 'holders'.
These holders were various Delaware chiefs, and not as legend
has it the Iroquois.Despite the fact that this (mostly) New York State Confederacy of the 'Five Nations' had defeated the Delaware,
they did not have the powerthe sell the land. As Francis Jennings points out, this misreading of the situation resulted from the fact
that the Delaware played the role of peacemaker among various quarreling tribes. As Native women often mediated disputes, the Delaware held the position of the 'woman' in this arrangement. Europeans wrongly assumed that the 'woman' position signified
a lack of rights and lack of power. However, theywere correct in assessing that the Iroquois held the most power, though Penn
thought that politics, at least dealing with Indians,were local so he favored the less militarily powerful Delaware. " 3
"The Lenape (Deleware) word for Iroquois
is Mengwe. Literally this translates as the glans penis. Assuming the Lenape
were not being derisive, then this term may come from the seventeen and
eighteenth social situation.....In order to assure that the Lenape
behaved themselves, Onondagah sent colonies of Iroquois to live among
them. These colonists became the Mengwe or Mingos".15
These are a people associated with Pennsylvania and Ohio history during the time of the Lenape removal further west,
and involving our direct Quaker forebear James Logan. See Mingo Indians, Detailed above.
The Lands of the Lenape on Contact , and the Migration as a Result
Indians above detailed
"Many diverse , small bands of Indians of the Algonquin langauge were living in
their original milieu in Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, lower New York State and Connecticut at the time of European contact. They referred to themselves as Lenape" . 4
The name Delaware used to describe the Lenape is not native at all., deriving instead from the naming of the Delaware Bay and the large river emptying into it for England's Lord de la Warr who, in the early 1600s, scouted the area.
While one site purports that " The Lenape tribal council was composed of three sachems (captains), one each from the Turtle (Unami), Turkey (Unalachtego), Wolf (Munsi) clans with the "head chief" almost always being a member of the Turtle Clan" .5
the organization of these people appears to be more social than political, and the clans [turtle, turkey and wolf] in fact cut through tribe and band organization, being based on matrilineal affiliation. [See Lee Sultzman's study on the Delaware Indian]
Being the region's easternmost people, the Lenape early suffered for European contact.
The Map at Left from the Lenni Lenape webpages, shows this tribes migration pattern from the time of European contact to the present day, and from the lands of their ancestors to the lands of reservations far to the west.
"Ina private, religious ceremony held May
1, 2003 on Ellis Island, located
Between William Penn, the Penn Heirs, and the Native Americans
Involving the Pennsylvania of our Forebears
William Penn sought , and obtained, treaties with the
native Lenape immediately upon acquisition of the colony.
He sought a treaty with the Susquehannock, but found they were subjugated by the Iroquois.
Map Image below from Penn and the Indians page of comprehensive website entitled
" William Penn. Visionary Proprietor" by Tuomi J. Forrest
"Initially, Penn dealt with the Unami (Turtle
Totem) Lenni Lenape (Delaware) tribe when he came to Pennsylvania, and
The Sons of St. Tammany
Penn came twice to his colony, and never tarried long within it. His first voyage was in the fall of 1682, and he left in August of 1684. He returned for a short spell in 1692, and at that time was accompanied by James Logan [our direct via the Howard Ascendancy] , a man of modest means who gained employment as Penn's secretary, functioned as steward of Pennsylvania on behalf of Penn in Penn's absence, and grew to be the wealthiest man in all the colonies at his zenith. It is during Penn's first visit to his colony that Penn supposedly signed a treaty with the Lenni Lenape Indians at Shackamaxon. No copy of this agreement exists, but there is a wampum belt that is said to have been given to Penn by the natives at this time. Colonial Historian "Francis Jennings believes that Penn signed the treaty and never broke it, but that his less scrupulous successors destroyed the document, presumably so that they could renege on its provisions."3. The earliest treaty document to which we can actually refer is the Treaty dated July 15, 1682 , in which Penn brokered with Idquahon and several others amongst the Lenape leadership for land pertaining to them. In 1683 he brokered more land transactions with these native peoples, while evidencing undertanding of the Lenape and the Iroqois Confederacy of New York to whom the Lenape were subjugated. "The treaty of 1701 is both the first full treaty text that remains extant (there exist parts of earlier ones), and the last agreement brokered directly by Penn rather than his agents. It also capped a major power play: 'It conveyed land, controlled trade, and arranged juridical relationships, all at the expense of New York and New York's partners, the Iroquois Five Nations' (Jennings 205). As he had done before, Penn rewarded 'his' Indians. His policies helped make Pennsylvania, in the words of the missionary John Heckewelder, 'the last, delightful asylum' for Native Americans (Jennings, 207). Penn's successors were much less fair and scrupulous in dealing with the Indians. The ink was barely dry on the 1701 treaty when Penn's secretary and family steward, James Logan , began to devise ways to reclaim land set aside for the Susquehannocks and the Delaware. "3
The Purchase of Lands West of the Susquehanna 1736 from the Iroquois by the Penns
The time between right to survey and right to the land west of the Susquehanna lagged nearly 15 years during which period settlement west of the Susquehanna was occuring, but the Penn heirs were not profiting from the settlement, and the area involved dispute with Maryland regarding where exactly the boundary of the two colonies lay.
"Sir william Keith...Lt Governor of the
province of Pennsylvania, ...was anxious to hinder these encroachments
on what he believed to be the property of the heirs of Penn....the lands
had not, as yet, been purchased from the Indians by the propretor of Pennsylvania,
and much less by that of Maryland......the policy of Penn ever had been
to grant no rights to lands, and to permit no settlements on them, until
purchased of the Indians.....
"...Part of Chester Countyís western frontier
at the beginning of the 18th century [desired] Settlement along the Susquehanna
was important to Pennsylvaniaís future development not only because of
the boundary dispute with Maryland that precipitated Cresap's War (1731-1736)
but also because the Susqehanna was a trade route that provided direct
accesss from Pennsylvaniaís hinterland to the West and to the Chesapeake,
The heartland of the American colonies. ì10
8. History of York County from its erection to the present time; [1729-1834]
By W. C. Carter & A. J. Glossbrenner.
10. From:Hopkins, Leroy. ìBlack Eldorado on the Susquehanna: The Emergence of Black Columbia, 1726-1861î, Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society. Vol 89, pp 110-132 Transcription available at Link
First William Penn and later "his heirs and their representatives, negotiated formally with the Indians, and purchased from them land already nominally theirs . As settlement along the coast grew in size and number, the need for westward expansion became apparent, and in 1722 the Indians were asked for, and gave, permission to survey the land beyond the Susquehanna River. " 2 It was at this time that " a tract about 6 miles wide and 15 miles long and including the site now occupied by the City of York, was surveyed and named Springettsbury Manor, for Springett Penn, the grandson of the Founder. " 2 14 years later
" In the summer of 1736 the sachems (i.e. rulers) of the Five Nations met in the country of the Onandagoes (i.e. in the region of the present-day state of New York) and decided to review the treaties that had been made between them and the colonists. They then traveled to Philadelphia and renewed old treaties of friendship with the Penn family. The Treaty of the Five Nations, signed by the twenty-three Indian chiefs present, granted to the Penns, among other boundaries: "all the lands lying on the west side of the said river (i.e. the Susquehanna) to the setting of the sun." 27 Ben Franklin's "Gazettle" informs "Conrad Weiser learned, about 1 September, that a group of Six Nations chiefs were on their way to Pennsylvania. They were guided to James Logan's home at Stenton where, 28 September, the treaty began. Franklin reported the presence of the Indians in the 7 October Gazette. The treaty continued at the Friends' Great Meeting House in Philadelphia and concluded on 14 October, with the two sides renewing the earlier treaty of friendship, 1732. A Treaty of Friendship held with the Chiefs of the Six Nations at Philadelphia (1737) was the first of a series of Indian treaties printed by Franklin. Then the chiefs met privately with John Penn. He reminded them that they had previously sold all the land along the Susquehanna and asked why they had lately laid claims to those lands. On 11 October the Indians confirmed the sale. The Gazette, 14 October, celebrated Pennsylvania's peaceful Indian policy. At Conrad Weiser's home, 25 October, the chiefs also sold land along the Delaware River below the Kittatinny Hills, and a group of four chiefs warned the Proprietors that the Delaware Indians no longer owned any land and were not to be trusted. "28
" Onandagoe , Seneca, Oneida and
Tuscarora nations [of the
Six Nations] signed a new treaty of peace and deeded to the Penns,
'all the river Susquehanna and all land lying on the west side of said
river to the setting of the sun...'. " 2
In 1637, "the Onandagoe, Seneca (see also this alternate Seneca link ), Oneida and Tuscarora [all members of the Iriquois nation] "signed a new treaty of peace and deeded to the Penns, 'all the river Susquehanna and all land lying on the west side of said river to the setting of the sun...' "2
The Walking Purchase 1738
Image from the Lenni Lenape webpages
|n 1732, William Penn's son, Thomas, inherited the deed to the Commonwealth
Pennsylvania, which at the time stretched from the Delaware River westward to the
Susquehanna River, and from the Maryland and Delaware borders northward to roughly
the base of Blue Mountain.....To expand the state, Penn met with Delaware Indians in Philadelphia and produced a
deed from 1686 which stated that the Delaware Indians sold the white settlers all the land
west of the Delaware River, north as far as a man could walk in a day and a half. The
Indians were puzzled, held a powwow and eventually agreed to the terms of the deed.
Over 100 years later, experts examined the Deed of 1686 and found that
it was in fact a
Three runners prepared and a path was cleared through the forest. At
the end of the race, The Deed of 1686 set the limits of the purchase at
right angles to the line of the walk,
As the colony sought for expansion beyond the territory deeded to Penn by the Indians initially, clear title from the Indians to the land in the upper Delaware and Lehigh River valleys was sought. The Walking Purchase of 1737, for whom our direct ancestor James Logan is primarily responsible, abused the Lenape residing in the region in both the manipulation of Indian alliances forcing the treaty from tthem, and trickery deceiving them in the amount of land involved in the treaty itself. The map at left shows the territory pre and post walking purchase and is again from the Lenni Lenape webpages.
Against the wishes of the increasingly confined Lenape, the 6 nations
of the Iroquois, to whom the Lenape were subservient, signed a deed giving
up Lenape interest in the area.
Forced to now western Pennsylvania, the Lenape were welcomed by the French, intent on establishing ownership of the Ohio and Allegheny River Valleys and who , by 1748, were deeply involved in dispute with the Virginia based Ohio Company [with which organization Virginian George Washington became milatarily involved] for dominance in the region.
As a result of the collective history above, the Lenape Indians, known as the Delawares to the colonials, were among the firecest in the raids on the frontier settlements of Pennsylvania occuring during the French and Indian War.In the short period between 1748 and 1756, the French used the Indians as a devestating and effective tool against the British. Adams County, at that time still part of York, was greatly affected by these raids, as were its frontier neighbors.
Top of Page
The Natives of Eastern and South Central Pennsylvania: Page Contents
IroquoisMingoSusquehannocksShawneeLenni Lenape [Delaware]
Sources for This Page:
1. State Museum of Pennsylvania. Brief Summary of the 1681 Charter.
2. From York
County History Pages of York
3. Penn and the Indians page of site entitled " William Penn. Visionary Proprietor" by Tuomi J. Forrest
4 Indians, Sources, Critics by Will J. Alpern (Prudential-Bache Securities). Presented at the 5th Cooper Seminar, James Fenimore Cooper: His Country and His Art at the State University of New York College at Oneonta, July, 1984. ©1985 by State University of New York College at Oneonta ["may be downloaded and reproduced for personal or instructional use, or by libraries" ] Originally published in James Fenimore Cooper: His Country and His Art, Papers from the 1984 Conference at State University of New York College -- Oneonta and Cooperstown. George A. Test, editor. (pp. 25-33)
HISTORYpart of First
Nations, Issues of Conesquence pages. Lee Sultzman
HISTORY, Lee Sultzman. Part
8.Information on the Susquehannock Indians from Pagewise
9. Delaware History by Lee Sultzman.. Part of First Nations Histories
10. Where are the Susquehannock now? part of the pages of BrokenClaw.com
12. Native Americans Post Contact:, from The Mariners Museum, Newport News, Va pages
13. . Internet School Library Media Center, Monacan Indians page.
14. AN AMERICAN SYNTHESIS The Sons of St. Tammany or Columbian Order . [ the footnotes evident in the text takent from "an American Synthesis" can be accessed at the link given in source
15. Iroquois . By: Joe Wagner, with references provided.
16. The Iroquois. by Lee Sultzman. Part of First Nations Histories
Henry Harrison and the West , part of Dr James B. Calvert's pages
at University of Denver Website.
At the time of Penn's arrival in 1682, the Susquehannock were subservient to the Iroquois Confederacy, just as their enemies and neighbors, the Delaware , were. The Susquehannock were decimated by war and disease, but the Lenape remained vital.
18. Shawnee's Reservation a detailed site on Shawnee History
19. Shawnee History by Lee Sultzman. . Part of First Nations Histories
20. Marjorie Hudson, Among the Tuscarora: The Strange and Mysterious Death of John Lawson, Gentleman, Explorer, and Writer, North Carolina Literary Review, 1992 [transcribed at East North Carolina Digital History Exhibits]
21. Chief Logan: Friend, Foe or Fiction? by Ronald R. Wenning. The Journal of the Lycoming County Historical Society, Volume XXXVII, Number 1, Fall, 1997
22. Mingo Indians part of The Allegheny Regional Family History Society's Web pages
Shikellamy and the Walking Purchase By Al Zagofsky
24. Conrad Weiser from the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
25. The Walking Purchase from Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
Logan , Mingo Indian from The American National Biography, published
by Oxford University Press under the auspices
of the American Council of Learned Societies.
Lineage of Mother Bedford from Mother
Bedford , a website devoted primarily to the history of Old-Bedford
County, Pennsylvania during the American Revolutionary War period.
28. Year 1736. part of the webpage entitled "Ben Franklin :A Documentary History" by J A Leo Lemay , English Department , Professor University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.
entry from Hodge's Handbook Abstract: The 'Shawnee' entry from Handbook
of American Indians North of Mexico, edited by Frederick
Webb Hodge (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30. GPO: 1910.)
chapter of At
the Crossroads Indians and Empires on a Mid-Atlantic Frontier, 1700-1763
by Jane T. Merritt [book content , availability and sample chapter viewable and obtained via The University of North Carolina Press]
Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission . PENNSYLVANIA STATE
ON THE EVE OF COLONIZATION
Not sure where I use the following here: numbered 1 like 1 above, but not used so far that I can see, and if so, should have another number
1. (New Jersey) Extract from The
Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton. Bureau of
American Ethnology Bulletin 145ó1953. [726 pagesóSmithsonian Institution]
(pp. 48-55). Presented in pages of
Northern Plains Archive Project web site.
To Our American Immigrants
To Our Pennsylvanians -See Pennsylvania Index