James Logan and The Native Americans

Check this out: "By 1710, Logan succeeded Trent and Norris in the mercantile trade. He rented a warehouse on the Delaware
River, into which he accumulated goods, mostly furs, and then made up cargoes for England. He also had a
store where he retailed, handled a variety of goods, sold slaves, and acted as the political boss of the
propriety government." http://www.polamjournal.com/Library/APHistory/Sadowski/body_sadowski.html

And this"In 1718 both sons of Edmund and Mary Cartledge were found on tax assessment rolls. Edmund was the collector of taxes in Chester
County, Pennsylvania. The two brothers were among the few Quakers who embarked in Indian trade. John and Edmund Cartledge are
mentioned as fur traders for James Logan. John kept the trading post at Conestoga for James Logan."http://www.cartar.com/papers/cartledge/cartledge.htm

Ben Franklin's Pennsylvania GAZETTE 1729 - 1747  GREAT. Transcribed text

"White settlers from the Palatine and Ireland arrive in great numbers and fill up the part of Pennsylvania purchased from the Indians. Some Squatters begin to
invade Indian land. Complaints from the Indians are heard.
1731 - Logan shows a map to Council in which the French claim everything west of the Susquehannah River. The French begin to cultivate the Shawnee with gifts
and bring the Chiefs to Montreal. He writes a memorial to Robert Walpole in London, pointing out the danger of the French threat to the colonies. He urges the
crown to have a unified Indian and military policy in America.

1732 - He convinces Thomas Penn to come to America to negotiate with the Iroquois, who supposedly hold the Pennsylvania tribes as vassals. The Seneca chief
Hetaquantagechty led the Iroquois delegation and Logan and Weiser assisted Penn. The meet in the Great MeetingHouse (Arch St., Philadelphia). Later, they also
negotiated with the Delaware chief, Saaoonan for the lands on the upper Schuylkill, east and west of Tulpehocken.

1732 - His near monopoly in the fur trade is eroded during this and the next several years as English firms with cheaper trade goods (giving the traders and
Indians better bargains) compete successfully against him.

1736 - While Logan is President of Council, Cresap's war between settlers from Pennsylvania and Maryland breaks out along the Susquehannah. It ends about a
year after Sheriff Samuel Smith captures Thomas Cresap and sends him to Philadelphia. This is the same Cresap who later is a partner of George Washington's in
the Ohio Company.

1736-7 Logan's negotiations with the Delaware Indians living at the forks of the Delaware River are less successful. Nutimus, Lapppawinzoe, Tishecunk and the
other chiefs would not agree that Penn had purchased this land in 1686. He then, with Conrad Weiser accomplishes the Walking Purchase strategem. In the deed
of 1686 the Delaware had agreed to give up land that a man could walk in a day and a half. Not all of this land had been walked off. Logan had a path cleared
through the woods, than ran a relay race for the day left on the purchase, thus securing a claim to the land beyond the Delaware Water Gap (the Indians had really
only agreed up to the Tohickon Creek, Bucks county). The runners had covered 60 miles in a day. Logan revised this slightly in the Indian's favor back to the
Kittaniny mountain (Delaware Water Gap). A reservation of 10 square miles was set aside in the purchase as hunting grounds for the Delaware. The Indians
refused to leave, justifiably claiming trickery, and Logan did not move to evict them.

1741 - Conrad Weiser, the Indian agent, with Logan's support writes a pamphlet urging Quakers to step down from Government, seeing a looming French and
Indian war likely. In 1747, Benjamin Franklin and others formed militias without authority from the Quaker legislature called Associators. Logan, who is no
pacifist approves. In 1756, during the French and Indian War, the Quaker legislators do resign or not stand for re-election because their pacifism made them
unable to help defend the colony.

June 1742 - Another conference with the Iroquois, this time led by Canasatego. At this conference old treaties are reaffirmed and the Iroquois tell the Delaware to
leave the forks of the Delaware in favor of the Walking Purchase. After this conference, Gov. Thomas, Conrad Weiser and Richard Peters take over most of the
responsibilities for Indian Affairs, as Logan is retired. Soon George Croghan's voice is added too.

1744 - Indian conference at Lancaster. After this conference, William Johnson is the most important man in America concerning Indian affairs, replacing Logan

October 31, 1751 - James Logan dies in Philadelphia. He is buried near today's Arch Street Meeting House, probably under its parking lot. He was a member of
the Religious Society of Friends throughout his life, although he was often eldered about his stances on political issues and war (he was not a pacifist like most

May 16, 1754 - Sarah Read Logan dies. Note: Sarah's sister Rachel married Israel Pemberton and Rachel's son, Israel Pemberton, was a prominent pacifist Quaker
leader of the Pennsylvania Assembly at the outbreak of the French and Indian war that broke out after James Logan's death."An abstract of the life of James Logan Source cited: James Logan and the Culture of Provincial Pennsylvania by Frederick B. Tolles (1957) From Gwynned Friends Meeting webpages

transcripts regarding Indian stuff 1728 and so , references to Indian Unrest and Blunstone [MINUTES OF THE PROVINCIAL COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA, (September 1, 1728), In: Minutes of the Provincial Council of
       Pennsylvania, Vol. 3, pp. 329-331.

       INSTRUCTIONS TO WRIGHT & BLUNSTONE, (September 2, 1728), Gordon, Patrick? in: Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, Vol. I, pp.

James Logan enjoys a reputation as an adept and just diplomat with the Natives of the region of Pennsylvania. This is in part because of the reputation of his employer, William Penn. Included in his bio in this regard is frequent mention of the Mingo Chief James Logan, named for our ancestor.

The Walking Purchase [from Penssylvania Historical and Manuscript Commision] in detail narrative
The Manuscript itself:
"The Pennsylvania State Archives. Doc Heritage Transcripts The Walking Purchase. The following transcript is taken from the published Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, Vol. 1, pp. 541-543. "

"And so Penn and his agents began the process of buying land from its Native 'holders'.
These holders were various Delaware chiefs, and not as legend has it the Iroquois. Despite
the fact that this (mostly) New York State Confederacy of the 'Five Nations' had defeated the
Delaware, they did not have the power the sell the land. As Francis Jennings points out, this
misreading of the situation resulted from the fact that the Delaware played the role of
peacemaker among various quarreling tribes. As Native women often mediated disputes, the
Delaware held the position of the 'woman' in this arrangement. Europeans wrongly assumed
that the 'woman' position signified a lack of rights and lack of power. However, they were
correct in assessing that the Iroquois held the most power, though Penn thought that
politics, at least dealing with Indians, were local so he favored the less militarily powerful
Delaware. "
GREAT SITE From The American Studies webpages mounted by the Univ of Virginia Penn and the Indians

"Logan, James (c. 1725-1780), Mingo Indian, famous in his own time as an ally of English colonials; succeeding generations remember the
       tragedy that befell him and the lament he made in response....He is worth notice for his role in processes and relationships peculiar to the frontier region where colonials and tribesmen mingled. Firmly loyal
       to Pennsylvania and its Iroquois allies, Logan's father served as intermediary between the colony and its tribes. Soyechtowa admired his father's
       Pennsylvania friend, Secretary James Logan (1674-1751), so much that he followed a widely practiced Indian custom and took James Logan as
       his own name. " From American National Biography on Line , James Logan [indian] biopay for subscrption, somehow got here

"The indigenous peoples in the area settled by early immigrants to Pennsylvania were not numerous. Possibly, not more than 15,000 lived within the colony's boundaries. Those who inhabited the area settled by the early colonists were the Lenni Lenape, called by the English the Delaware. They were divided into several
sub-groups, including the Munsee (Wolf), Unalachtigos (Turkey), and Unamis (Turtle). Other groups inhabiting the interior of the province included the Shawnee,
who were scattered throughout the area, the Seneca in the Northwest, and the Susquehannocks, along the lower Susquehanna River, but who had abandoned that
area by the time of Penn's arrival......Holme wrote to Lenni Lenape leaders Shakhoppen, Secane, Mailibar, and Tangoras, identifying the area that he had purchased and what he had paid for it. He also indicated that "Benjamin ChambersÍ with a convenient number of friends to assist him" would "mark out a westerly line" that was to run from the Delaware to the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of present-day Washington Boro......
Holme's letter reveals much about Penn's relationship with the native people and their culture. He acknowledged the leadership of
                        the "Indian Kings" and addressed them as "my very loving friends" from whom he had purchased land of which they were the
                        rightful owners and which he intended to have defined on a map. Nevertheless, he demonstrated his awareness of their possible
                        hostility by warning that he did not expect opposition but rather cooperation from them. He described the extent of the purchase in
                        their terms, as the distance a man could "go in two days," which would have required fast walking. The distance between the
                        Delaware and Susquehanna was more than sixty miles. Holme paid for the purchase in Indian currency: "Two hundred fathom of
                        Wampum" and goods such as shirts, shoes, knives, bells, tobacco boxes, and (inconsistently) guns......
The map that Holme commissioned Chambers to draw is inclusive. It identified the Delaware's tributaries, including the Schuylkill
                        River; both branches of the Brandywine; Darby, Crum, Ridley, and Chester Creeks as well as rivulets, runs, brooks, and rivers such
                        as the Conestoga farther into the interior. Transportation arteries including Indian paths are marked. Also important are the
                        structures Chambers noted. Houses suggest that even at this early date (1685) rural areas well beyond Philadelphia were inhabited,
                        and the mills indicate the area's economic activities. Evidence that the Susquehannock Indians had departed from the lower
                        Susquehanna River Valley is provided by the labels "Fort Demolished" at the sites of their former towns along the Susquehanna

"Logan was the Penn family's chief negotiator with the Indians and an imperial statesman who
                 early advocated strong Indian alliances as protection against French territorial inroads from the
                 north and west. Logan represented the interests of the council during a visit to the Ohio frontier in
                 1705 and quickly earned the trust of the Indians that he visited. Out of respect, the chief of the
                 Cayugas named his son Logan." "James Logan" brief bio from University of Pennsylvania Webpages
"LoganÝs ideas of focusing primarily on the Iroquois Confederation controlled the Indian policy of Pennsylvania after 1732 up until the Revolutionary War.  Logan foresaw the problems that
would be caused by the Scot-Irish ýsettlingţ in the western territories still owned by the Indians. They would kill the natives turning them from friends into enemies. Logan suspected also,
that the French would lay claim to territory south and east of Lake Erie extending into western Pennsylvania. Logan, knowing the Quaker-run Assembly would not support military defense
proposed an alliance with the Six Nations as security against the French. Logan did not always abide by William and Hannah PennÝs policy of fairness to the Indians ? treating the Indians as
prior owners of the ýPennsylvaniaţ land and entitling them to the same legal consideration as Europeans in trade." Provincial Governors Historical Sketches James Logan Term 45, 1736-1738 from the webpages of the Allison-Antrim Museum, Greencastle, Penna

The Penns began selling land in regions given to them by the Crown but not yet ceded by  treaty, and James Logan sold land in the area as well, a large portion of his fortune was made from land speculation and as a result of increasing settlement and interest in the area, clear title was needed to the upper Delaware and Lehigh River valleys.  The land encompassed in the 1736 treaty with the Iroquois involved the homes of The Delaware, subservient to the Iroquois, and moved from their native New Jersey into the interiors of Pennsylvania since the 1786 bogus deed the Penns stated was made between the Indians and the region of Pennsylvania under discussion, no original copy of which could be produced and no record of which is found in provincial land records.  There was a deed from the Iroquois giving up the area, and so in 1737 the Delaware were forced to relinquish it. Surveying it was a different matter. The deed with the Iroquois involved a walk into the interior "as far as a Man could walk in a day and half", a typical Indian measurement of space, and extended from the Delaware River near Wrightstown to the northwest. James Logan "hired three men to "walk  off," the area who were accompanied initially by several Indians. The "walk" ended well into the Lehigh River Valley, near what is now the borough of Jim Thorpe, formerly Mauch Chunk, at the foothills of the Blue Mountains. Instead of projecting  the boundary due east, provincial surveyors drew the line at right angles to the Upper Delaware River, near the New York border....... Also, because the Penns had sent scouting parties to clear the route and had recruited outdoorsmen to travel it, the area that the walk covered became half again to twice the distance that the  Indians normally traveled a "day and half." Two of the three hired "walkers" were  unable to maintain the fast pace and dropped out. The third eventually collapsed in near exhaustion. The Delaware early had withdrawn in disgust, complaining bitterly that the white men did not "walk fair." Consequently, the outraged Delaware refused to leave the land, whereupon, provincial officials called on the Iroquois to force them out. This they did in 1741, informing the Delaware that as a subject people they had no right to sell land in the first place and insulting them by calling them "women."  "  1

Although initially getting what they wanted [land in the upper delaware and lehigh valleys] , Logan  and Penn's sons John and Thomas Penn gave the fuel to the fire of the 1755 Indian incursions into the frontiers of Pennsylvania, in which so many farms were burned and persons killed or taken captive.
Logan and the Penns  "  indicated clearly that they had abandoned William Penn's policy of fairness
                        toward the Indians. They seemed to have had no qualms about using one group of
                        Indians to cheat another out of its land." Most Delawares moved north, where they developed relationships with the French, and willingly made the raids into Pennsylvania and their former land on behalf of that entity in the period of the French and Indian war.  "the Delaware moved down the Susquehanna and ravaged Pennsylvania's frontier......The Quaker Party  in the provincial legislature charged, probably validly, that the Delawares' actions were the direct result of the "Walking Purchase." 1

As a result of this unfair practice, a turning point in the Proprietary's treatment to the natives ,

Walking purchase 1737

1. Walking purchase 1737, james logan relevant, from the Pennsylvnia Archives

2 CHAMBERS MAP FROM THE DELAWARE TO THE SUSUQUEHANNA, 1685 . Doc Heritage pages of the Pennsylvania Archives.