1) Introduction: Our German Speaking Ancestors [Relevant to All our German Surnames]
2) The Palatinate and the Palatines[Relevant to Nearly All our German Surnames]
3) The Germans [Relevant to All our German Surnames; Who they are]
6) About Schwabia of the Suebi-Our Namesake Region
Our German Surnames in Order of Apperanace
[Relevant to All our German Surnames]
In 1710, when the first of the writerís direct German speaking ancestors boarded a ship to brave a three month and treacherous journey across often unfriendly waters, he and his family had in mind a new start in the New World, the concept of which gained higher meaning with William Penn's plan for his colonial possesion. Such was Penn's concept and its effect that Thomas Jefferson , a great student of history, declared Penn one of the most able statesmen in collective world history. Penn's radical concept of a true seperation of church and state evident in the acceptance of all faiths bound only in common pursuit to build a thriving society was the primary impetus of emmigration for this, the first wave of German immigration to America . The relationship of the Pennsylvania colonials with the Native Americans differed significantly from that of our Virginia ancestors arriving 90 years before and this was again because of Penn and the able stewardship of his secretary James LOGAN [our direct], both of whom mastered negotiation with the natives far more ably than their Virginian forebears. Still, it could not be lost on those emmigrating in these early years that the natives might be rightfully alarmed at their neverending arrivals, neither lost that the natives would be able to muster the numbers and moral fortitude necesarry to defend their land if need be. They knew they were going to wilderness regions; Many of these first heads of household were no longer young. Despite these significant hazards our ancestors left Europe. Although the situation leading to emmigration was surely motivated by the desire for freedom of religion , our first German immigrants also hungered for freedom from the threat of war and its effects, the century just passed being the "century of war" for Europe, and Germany in particular [with the first portion of the 18th century part of that "century of war" ]. The first of our German immigrants were absolutely resolved in their Anabaptist faith, a doctrine practised by Mennonites and a splinter group from them, the Amish. By 1720, five of our German surnames are known present in America, and all in Pennsylvania, and these were non anabaptist protestants involved in the Mennonite Settlement of Lancaster [then Chester] County, while the arrival of Reformed and Lutherans among our Germans was commencing. Most central to the Anabaptist doctrine of our first German Americans was the refusal of infant baptism; Anabaptist doctrine holds baptism a covenant with God to be expressed between a cognizant participant and their diety. Most baptisms for Anabaptists occured at about the age of 12 and non infant baptism was considered heretical to both Catholics and Non Anabaptist Protestants . First practising in Switzerland and the Palatinate of Germany in the 1520s, as a group these Mennonite Anabaptists had suffered vigorous persecution involving torture, death by drowning, beheading and burning at the stake, confiscation of properties, expulsion from villages sometimes in the dead of winter and without shoes on their feet, the outlaw of their religious practise and the threat of imprisonment in rebellion of the law, absence of legal recognition of marriage, the ban on funerals in the faith, and social stigmatization . Our first German immigrant male head of household was a leader of the Mennonites, a Bishop of that church, Hans HERR. Although having a tremendous history of oppresion in their background, the anabaptists were not the only protestants to suffer enough to cause them to leave their homeland. All of our Germans were present in America, and Pennsylvania, by 1800 minus Otto Reinecke who arrived 1868 and possibly William Henry Stair who is known born in Pennsylvania in 1830 but whose ascendancy is not yet revealed. By the time of arrival of the last among our German forebears [Otto Reinecke above mentioned] the primary impetus for emmigration was economic, and was encompassed in what would later be called the "second wave" of German immigration to America.
2) The Palatinate and the Palatines , Also Baden
Our German American families
came largely from the Palatinate and the regions closely
surronding it and when found with surnames assigned
to a map of that region are seen in very close geographic proximity
by modern standards.
In the period of the emmigration of our forebears the Palatinate was united not geographically but politically and in the form of The Elector Palatinate (AKA Count Palatine) who controlled both the Rhenish or Lower and the Upper Palatinate.
In terms of American geneology, when we speak of ancestors from the Palatinate, we are referencing a general geographic area known as the Rhenish-Palatinate and Germanic language use. The Palatine ancestors are more accurately described as a group of German speakers of the South West portion of present day Germany who were generally escaping religious persecution and the wars that had engulfed the Lower Palatinate and the regions closely surronding it. For the first wave of immigrants, they were also escaping a freeze of 1708-1709 the like of which has not lately been experienced.
The Palatinate is known as the Pfalz to Germans and is " In German history, the lands of the count palatine, a title held by a leading secular prince of the Holy Roman Empire. Geographically, the Palatinate was divided between two small territorial clusters: the Rhenish, or Lower, Palatinate and the Upper Palatinate. The Rhenish Palatinate included lands on both sides of the middle Rhine River between its Main and Neckar tributaries. Its capital until the 18th century was Heidelberg."23 (The Heidelberg area gave forth Swope, Spangler, Ziegler, Wolfhardt lines)
"The Upper Palatinate was located in northern Bavaria, on both sides of the Naab River as it flows south toward the Danube, and extended eastward to the Bohemian forest. The boundaries of the Palatinate varied with the political and dynastic fortunes of the counts palatine." 10
Today "The Rhenish Palatinate extends from the left bank of the Rhine and borders in the S on France and in the W on the Saarland and Luxembourg. Neustadt an der Weinstrasse is the capital; Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Pirmasens, and Speyer are the chief cities. It is a rich agricultural region, famed for its wines.
"The Upper Palatinate (Ger. Oberpfalz) is a district (c.3,725 sq mi/9,650 sq km) of NE Bavaria, separated in the east from the Czech Republic by the Bohemian Forest. Regensburg is the capital. Agriculture and cattle raising are the chief occupations."2
Many Swiss Mennonites migrated to the Palatinate with escalation of hostilities in Switzerland and the family registers of Swiss Mennonites often show a generation or two in Germany and often the Palatinate before their emmigration, usually via England or Rotterdam, to America. Likewise, some Protestants who were not Mennonite left Germany seeking respite in Switzerland, lingering there several generations before embarking again for England or Holland to obtain passage to American shores. Our Spangler ancestors are one example of this migratory pattern to Switzerland. Having left Germany during the 30 Years War and apparantly persecuted for their Lutheran faith, two generations later a Spangler returned to the Palatinate. Many of that ancestorís children then emmigrated to America. Our direct Herr ancestors of Switzlerland had a son born in Germany just prior to departure from Europe.
From which hail our Bender, Bachman and Meals forebears and at the time under discussion part of the Palatinate.
ElectricLibrary.com: "Pronounced As: bädn , former state, SW Germany. Karlsruhe was the capital. Stretching from the Main River in the northeast across the lower Neckar valley and along the right bank of the Rhine to Lake Constance (Bodensee), the former state of Baden bordered on France and the Rhenish Palatinate in the west, Switzerland in the south, Hesse in the north, and Bavaria and Württemberg in the east. It included the cities of Mannheim, Pforzheim, Heidelberg, Baden-Baden, Freiburg, and Rastatt and, in the south, most of the Black Forest. Until the French Revolution the area was a confusing jigsaw puzzle of petty margraviates and ecclesiastical states (the bishoprics of Mainz, Speyer, Strasbourg, and Konstanz). The Breisgau belonged to the Hapsburgs, the Mannheim-Heidelberg area to the Rhenish Palatinate."2
Before discussing the political nature of Germany itself and the larger Holy Roman Empire (which both the Swiss and German ancestors were leaving) a brief review of who the German people were is in order. For this, we must travel far back in time to first mention of the peoples of this region of the world.
Encyclopediac.com describes ìGermansî as follows:
See Map of Migration of the German Tribes 373-500 A.D.
"The chief German tribes included the
Alemanni, the Angles , the Burgundii , the Lombards, the Saxons, and the
We Swopes of Broadway have blood of many Germanic tribes mentioned in the above paragraph, but many not through our direct German ancestors arriving to America in the 18th century but rather through a circuitous route, that is , the female Stewart Line marrying into the Swope line via the union of Nancy Moore McCurdy with John Adam Swope in Adams County, Penna. Nancy Moore McCurdy descended from the union of Petheric of the Cairn McCurdy with the 7th Grandaughter of Robert II of Scotland through that kingís liason with Moira Leitch (of whom no more is known). All entries of individuals on the tree from prior to 1000 AD are oweing solely to Margaretís own precense as our Grandmother in the tree and her 7th G Grandfather Robert II of Scotland.
The Swope name comes from the Suevi. Our first known Swope ancestor is identified (if one relies on the work of Morse and McLachlin encompassed in The Swope Book of Remembrance) living in the mid 1600s, residing in Sinsheim. Despite the dispute I raise with the work in the headwater entries of our Swope lines regarding Yostís parentage, we can surely name a first direct Swope forebear in Germany OR America as Yost Swope who died in Penna, and this ancestor is held in common by both The Swope Family by G E Swope and The Swope Book of Remembrance by Morse and McLachlin, although the birth and death dates vary in those two sources and The Book of Remembrance takes the line up a generation. Any conjecture as to Swope ascendancy beyond these upper branches is linked only to the Surname, an eponymous one, relevant to an area of Germany and the tribe which once held it . Thus, in endeavoring to establish the historical context of our Swope Forebears beyond the mid 17th, we must work without names, and can only link in a general sense relevant to the tribe itself. Sinsheim suffered terribly in the War of the Palatinate and, like Heidelberg, was totally destroyed and burned along with all its records.
" A Germanic tribe, a splinter group of the Suebi . The Alemanni may have been a confederation of smaller tribes. First mentioned (A.D. 213) as unsuccessfully assaulting the Romans between the Elbe and the Danube, they later settled (3d cent.) in upper Italy. By the 5th cent. they occupied territories on both sides of the Rhine south of its junction with the Main (present Alsace, Baden, and NE Switzerland). Their westward expansion brought them into conflict with the Franks, whose king Clovis I ( one of our directs-see the Franks below) defeated them in 496. In 505 he forced them to retire into Rhaetia, and in 536 they passed under Frankish rule. By the 7th cent. they had accepted Christianity. Swabia is also known as Alamannia, and the High German dialects of SW Germany and Switzerland are called Alemannic. In French speech the name Allemands came to signify all Germans." 2
"The Angles came either from Angeln, a district in what is now Schleswig-Holstein, or from Denmark." (Ed note: the writer is speaking about the invasion of England and this does not limit their existence to either locale but is pointing where the first inhabitants of Britain of this stock are thought to have hailed from ) . "They were just entering the agricultural stage of civilisation when they arrived in Britain. The Angles occupied the central part of southern Britain and the northern and eastern coasts. They founded the embryonic kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbria and East Anglia. These territories were called Engla land, or Angle land, from which the name England came." 8
When speaking of the Anglo Saxons of Britain, the Jutes must also be included.
The Franks were a Germanic tribe. Vital in terms of French History , among the persons direct to us involving the Franks is Charlemagne. France derives itís name from Francio, a Sicambrian of the 1st century BC. His descendants are said to be kings of the Franks, a tribe that settled in the Roman province of Gaul. ìThe Franks were a confederation formed in Western Germany of a certain number of ancient barbarian tribes who occupied the right shore of the Rhine from Mainz to the sea. Their name is first mentioned by Roman historians in connection with a battle fought against this people about the year 241. '" 17
We have likely ascendancy to the first known Frankish rulers, the Merovingians, of whom the contemporaneous Gregory of Tours wrote, but this is conjecture, the geneological link from the earlier Merovingian to the subsequent Carolingian dynasty of which we are surely part being often and variously presented but as yet unproven in any way. For this reason, our direct Frankish lines must be considered headwatered at present in the late part of the 6th and early part of the 7th century in the form of the Sainted and powerful Pepin I , Mayor of the Palace [of Austrasia] found in service to the Merovingian Kings which his dynasty supplanted. Pepin is Charlemagne's GGG Grandfather. Pepin is patriarch to the Carolingian dynasty of which Charlemagne was part. Pepin was deemed a saint, and the following appears in the All Saints Index: " Blessed Pepin of Landen (AC)(also known as Pippin) Died February 21, c. 646. Pepin was, perhaps, the most important, powerful person in the empire during his age. As duke of Brabant and mayor of the palace (first minister) of kings Clotaire II, Dagobert I, and Sigebert III, he determined much of the policy of the Franks. Pepin, the ancestor of the Carolingian dynasty of French kings, was the husband of Blessed Itta and father (of) Grimoald, of Saint Gertrude of Nivelles and Saint Begga. He is described as ' a lover of peace and the constant defender of truth and justice,' though it may not seem that way at first glance."
The Visigoths intermarried with the royals of the Merovingian Dynasty discussed above. The Merovingians gave way as a dynasty to our assured directs, the Carolingians, who themselves took their dynastic name from Charlemagne. If any geneological connection is made that can be considered firm between the Carolingian and the Merovingian Kings before them, then the Lombards will be our collaterols .
The Lombard and Burgundii leaders intermarried with the royals of the Merovingian dynasty, and if any geneological connection is made that can be considered firm between the Carolingian and the Merovingian Kings before them, then the Lombards will be our collaterols and the Burgundii our directs. Both the Lombards and the Burgundii share the period of the Merovingian Dynasty.
"The empire was justified by the claim
that, just as the pope was the vicar of God on earth in spiritual matters,
so the emperor was God's temporal vicar; hence he claimed to be the
supreme temporal ruler of Christendom. Actually, the power of the emperor
never equaled his pretensions. Although the emperors were accorded diplomatic
precedence over other rulers, their suzerainty early ceased over France,
S Italy, Denmark, Poland, and Hungary; and their control over England,
Sweden, and Spain was never more than nominal. The authority of the emperors
in Italy and Germany was sometimes nonexistent, sometimes real.
"Not every German king became emperor, however, because the popes, especially when elections to the kingships were disputed, often claimed that the selection of the emperor was their prerogative. Despite the fact that the German kingship and the imperial office were technically elective, they tended to become hereditary."4
"The Emperor had to be a worthy man, aged
18 or more, reside in the Empire, be of noble birth (all four grandparents
had to be noble, according to the Schwabenspiegel), and of lay status (this
was not explicitly stated). No law required that he be Catholic,
and, although the text in a number of laws assumes that the emperor is
Catholic, jurists saw no obstacle to the choice of a Protestant prince.
Nor did he have to be German, as the examples of Alfonso of Castile and
Charles V showed" 3
"The territorial components of the Empire
fell into one of the following categories
"As a result of their difficult dual
role as emperors and German kings, and especially because of their interests
in Italy, Otto's successors could not prevent the German dukes and their
vassals from increasing their power at the expense of the central authority.
Imperial power was further undermined by the conflict between emperors
and popes, manifest in the struggle over investiture."2
We can see that even before the Prostestant reformation, dischord with the Catholic Church manifest in Germany in the form of the Holy Roman Emperor and the right of investiture lay the groundwork for the greater dischord as a whole presented with the Reformation.
6) About Schwabia of
(Swabia (German Schwaben, Latin Suevia), and the Suevi)
"Swabia is rich in history and is a treasury of German architecture. Settled in the 3d cent. by the Germanic Suebi and Alemanni during the great migrations, the region was also known as Alamannia until the 11th cent. (The Alemannic, or Swabian, dialects of the various regions of Swabia [in its largest sense] remain linguistically closely related.) "2 "The region was first known to the Romans as Alamannia because at the time its settlers were the Germanic tribe of Alamans. When the Romans began to conquer the area, it was incorporated as part of the Agri Decumates. It later received its present name from later German migrants, the Suevi, who became amalgamated with the Alamanni in the 5th century AD. "7
"Around 500, Alemannia came under the control of the waxing Frankish Empire. But its ruling house, the Merovingians (Franks) were not strong and by 689 Swabia was virtually independent. It was brought back under control in the 730's and 740's by Charles Martel, founder of the Carolingian Dynasty, who deposed the hereditary dukes of Swabia and subdivided it to be ruled by counts reporting directly to him. This situation continued until the 9th century and the dissolution of the Empire under the grandsons of Charlemagne. Between 900-11, largely because the central royal authority failed to stem the tide of invading Magyars (Hungarians) and Normans, the Alemannians were able to become an independent "stem-duchy", organized, like those of the Bavarii, Franks, Saxons and Thuringii, around the people of an historic tribe. As in all the duchies, the dukes were those who proved they could meet the miltary demands of those anarchic times. The first duke's family were known by the sobriquet dux Raetianorum, i.e. defenders of the Alpine passes of Switzerland, reflecting their role as military leaders and organizers. During this period, Swabia controlled not only parts of Switzerland, but lands west of the Rhine River, i.e. including the Alsace. " 7
As one of the "stem duchies of medieval Germany in the 9th century... (Schwabia) far exceeded its present boundaries, including also Alsace & Switzerland east of the Reuss River. In 1079 the duchy was bestowed on the house of Hohenstaufen, which in 1138 also obtained the imperial title." 2
"On the extinction (1268) of the dynasty, Swabia broke up into small temporal and ecclesiastic lordships and lost its political identity. The Swiss part became independent in 1291 and the Hapsburg territories in Alsace passed to France in 1648, but Breisgau and the other Hapsburg domains in South Baden remained Austrian until 1803?6, except from 1469 to 1477, when they were ruled by Charles the Bold of Burgundy. The rest of Swabia was held in large part by the counts (later dukes) of Württemberg, by the margraves of Baden-Durlach, by the landgraves of Fürstenberg, by the princes of Hohenzollern, by the bishops of Strasbourg, Konstanz (Constance), and Augsburg, by several powerful abbeys, and by a multitude of petty princes, counts, and knights.
"Most of the Swabian municipalities had obtained the status of free imperial cities (i.e.,virtually independent republics) by 1300. Among them were Augsburg, Ulm, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Reutlingen, and Ravensburg. Their wealth, due mainly to commerce and industry, made them the most powerful element of the country, and they made their superior power felt by forming a series of leagues, starting in 1331. The Swabian League of 1376-89 successfully opposed Emperor Charles IV but was eventually defeated by the count of Württemberg. The most important Swabian League was that of 1488-1534.
"The chief Swabian cities accepted the Reformation in the 16th cent., but the countryside has remained divided between Catholics and Protestants to the present day. With the commercial revolution of the 15th and 16th cent. the Swabian cities temporarily lost most of their importance. (In the 19th cent. some, especially Stuttgart, revived as industrial centers.) When the Holy Roman Empire was organized in circles in the 16th cent., theSwabian Circle, similar in extent to the present region, was created. At the diet of Regensburg of 1801?3, which acted largely under the influence of Napoleon I, many of the small ecclesiastic and feudal holdings were taken over by Baden, Württemberg, and Bavaria. " 2
Swabia " with its capital at Augsburg,
was a medieval duchy in the lands now forming southwestern Germany. Its
territories covered the area now occupied by Baden-Württemberg (the
Black Forest) and parts of western Bavaria (to the Iller River) and northern
Switzerland. It owes its importance to its strategic position between the
upper reaches of two of Europe's most important rivers, the Danube and
"In the seventeenth, eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, as areas of eastern Europe were conquered from the Ottoman Turks, many from Swabia migrated to areas in the Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires. The Danube River, or Donau, was the most frequently used means of transportation for the trek and this group came to be known as the Donauschwaben. "7
Contemporary Schwabia in Detail showing major places of interest re
tourism (this relates to Bavarian Shwabia only)
7)The (Schwabian) Peasants War 1525 & its effects on Germany
"The peasants of Schwabia rose up against their clerical and secular leaders in 1525, and the movement speared into what is known as the Peasants War which encompassed much of Germany and had a profound effect on all of it, as well as on the Holy Roman Empire of which it was part....
"The first peasant conspiracy in Germany as a whole came into being in 1476, in the bishopric of Wuerzburg, a country already impoverished ëby bad government, manifold taxes, payments, feuds, enmity, war, fires, murders, prison, and the like,í and continually plundered by bishops, clergy and nobility in a shameless manner,,,
"From the moment when Luther's declaration
of war against the Catholic hierarchy set into motion all the opposition
elements of Germany, not a year passed without the peasants coming forth
with their demands. Between 1518 and 1523, one local revolt followed another
in the Black Forest and in upper Suabia. Beginning in the Spring of 1524,
these revolts assumed a systematic character. In April of that year, the
peasants of the Abbey of Marchthal refused serf labour and duties; in May
of the same year, the peasants of St. Blasien refused serf payments; in
June, the peasants of Steinheim near Memmingen declared they would pay
neither the tithe nor other duties; in July and August, the peasants of
Thurgau rebelled and were quieted partly through the mediation of Zurich,
partly through the brutality of the confederacy which executed many of
them. Finally, a decisive uprising took place in the Margraviate of Stuehlingen,
which may be looked upon as the real beginning of the Peasant War.
"The peasants of Stuehlingen suddenly refused deliveries to the Landgrave and assembled in strong numbers. On October 24, 1524, they moved towards Waldshut...Here they organised an evangelical fraternity, jointly with the city middle-class....The uprising spread rapidly over the entire territory of present-day Baden. A panic seized the nobility of Upper Suabia, whose military forces were all engaged in Italy, in a war against Francis I of France...The Suabian Union, comprising the princes, the nobility, and the imperial cities of Southwest Germany, tried conciliatory measures without guaranteeing the peasants real concessions. The latter continued their movement...The peasants were promised a peaceful agreement, either directly between the interested parties, or by means of an arbitrator, and an investigation of complaints by the court at Stockach. The troops of both the nobility and the peasants were dispersed.
"The peasants formulated sixteen articles, the acceptance of which were to be demanded of the court at Stockach. The articles were very moderate. They included abolition of the hunting right, of serf labour, of excessive taxes and master privileges in general, protection against wilful arrests and against partisan courts. (editors note: the courts were composed solely of nobility). The peasants' demands went no farther.....Nevertheless, immediately after the peasants went home, the nobility demanded continuation of all contested services pending the court decision... Thus the conflict was renewed.... In January, 1525, the entire country between the Danube, the Rhine and the Lech, was in a state of fermentation. In February, the storm broke....the peasants arose on February 9 ...,They were 10,000 to 12,000 strong.
"On February 25, the Upper Allgaeu troops, 7,000 strong, assembled at Schusser, moved by the rumour that troops were marching against the dissatisfied elements who had appeared in this locality as everywhere else. The people of Kempten, who had conducted a fight against their archbishop throughout the winter, assembled on the 26th and joined the peasants. The cities of Memmingen and Kaufbeuren joined the movement on certain conditions. The ambiguity of the position of the cities in this movement was already apparent. On March 7, the twelve Memmingen articles were proclaimed in Memmingen for all the peasants of Upper Allgaeu.....The peasants also arose in Lower Allgaeu... and in the estates of Truchsess. The movement started in the early days of March. This Lower Allgaeu troop... consisted of 7,000 men.
"All these troops adopted the Memmingen articles...A sixth troop was formed on the Danube, simultaneously with the others. From the entire region, Ulm to Donauwoerth, from the valleys of the Iller, Roth and Biber, the peasants came to Leipheim, and opened camp there. From fifteen localities, every able-bodied man had come, while reinforcements were drawn from 117 places. ...
"Thus, at the beginning of March, there were between 30,000 and 40,000 insurgent peasants of Upper Suabia in six camps under arms. ...
"At last the Suabian Union, with free hands and in command of the first contingents, threw off its mask, declaring itself 'to be ready, with arms in hand and with the aid of God, to change that which the peasants wilfully ventured.'
"The peasants adhered strictly to the armistice. On Judica Sunday they submitted their demands, the famous Twelve Articles, for consideration. They demanded the election and removal of clergymen by the communities; the abolition of the small tithe and the utilisation of the large tithe, after subtraction of the priests' salaries, for public purposes; the abolition of serfdom, of fishing and hunting rights, and of death tolls; the limitation of excessive bonded labour, taxes and ground rents; the restitution of the forests, meadows and privileges forcibly withdrawn from the communities and individuals, and the elimination of wilfulness in the courts and the administration....The growing agitation everywhere, the continued local conflicts of the peasants with the nobility, the news of a growing revolt in the Black Forest for the preceding six months and of its spread up to the Danube and the Lech....explain the rapid succession of peasant revolts in two-thirds of Germany. The fact, however, that the partial revolts took place simultaneously, proves that there were men at the head of the movement who had organised it through Anabaptists and other emissaries....
"In the Palatinate, peasant troops were formed on either bank of the Rhine by the end of April. They destroyed many castles and monasteries, and on May 1 they took Neustadt on the Hardt. The Bruchrain peasants, who appeared in this region, had on the previous day forced Speyer to conclude an agreement. The Marshal of Zabern, with the few troops of the Elector, was powerless against them, and on May 10 the Elector was compelled to conclude an agreement with the peasants, guaranteeing them a redress of their grievances, to be effected by a Diet....."11
Some 150,000 peasants were hanged, decapitated,blinded, impaled, or quartered. 12
"The class that suffered most from
the Peasant War was the clergy. Its monasteries and endowments were burned
down; its valuables plundered, sold into foreign countries, or melted;
its stores of goods consumed. They had been,\ least of all capable of offering
resistance, and at the same time the weight of the people's old hatred
fell heaviest upon them....
"The nobility had also suffered considerably. Most of its castles were destroyed, and a number of its most respected families were ruined and could find means of subsistence only in the service of the princes. Its powerlessness in relation to the peasants was proven. It had been beaten everywhere and forced to surrender. Only the armies of the princes had saved it. The nobility was bound more and more to lose its significance as a free estate under the empire and to fall under the dominion of the princes.
"Nor did the cities generally gain any advantages from the Peasant War. The rule of the honourables was almost everywhere reestablished with new force, and the opposition of the middle-class remained broken for a long time...Cities which had previously belonged to the princes were forced to pay heavy indemnities, robbed of their privileges, and made subject to the avaricious wilfulness of the princes (Frankenhausen, Arnstadt, Schmalkalden, Wuerzburg, etc.), cities of the empire were incorporated into territories of the princes (Muehlhausen), or they were at least placed under moral dependence on the princes of the adjoining territory, as was the case with many imperial cities in Franconia.
"The sole gainers under these conditions were the princes. ...The church estates were secularised in their favour; part of the nobility, fully or partly ruined, was obliged gradually to place itself in their vassalage; the indemnities of the cities and peasantry swelled their treasuries, which, with the abolition of so many city privileges, had now obtained a much more extended field for financial operations.
"The decentralisation of Germany, the widening and strengthening of which was the chief result of the war, was at the same time the cause of its failure." 11
(This decentralisation of Germany exerted its influence on the religious experience of our common German forebears. The princes exerted force against the centrist government and were allowed by treaty to practise the religion of their choice, as long as it was ìstate sanctionedî -that is, after the 1550s, Catholocism and Lutheranism, and after the 1640s, Catholocism, Lutheranism and Calvanism or Reformed. The populace was forced to follow the local nobles religious preference, and frequent changes of the ìofficial religionî forced frequent changes of the populaceís own practise, and gave rise to constantly shifting levels of tolerance or intolerance to any other religion than that currently preferred by the current rulers. See History of Germany : the Reformation present below for the staggering statistics on the change in official religion in Germany and the parts of its whole. )
The 12 Articles were rounded up in printed form and burned, only a few copies survive.
8) SCHWABIA Today
In German itís called Schwaben, and itís an " historic region, mainly in S Baden-Württemberg and SW Bavaria, SW Germany. It is bounded in the east by Upper Bavaria, in the west by France, and in the south by Switzerland and Austria. It includes the former Prussian province of Hohenzollern.
The main physical features of Swabia are the Black Forest; the valley of the upper DanubeRiver, which rises there; the Swabian Jura, a mountain range that extends parallel to and North of the Danube; and the valley of the upper Neckar River. The Rhine and Lake Constance (sometimes called the Swabian Sea) form the western and southern borders. The easternmost section of Swabia is part of the Danubian plateau of Bavaria and is a Bavarian province (c.3,940 sq mi/10,205 sq km), with Augsburg as capital." 2
"Today, the term Swabia is still sometimes used to refer to the areas once encompassed by the medieval duchy. The modern center is more thought to lie at Stuttgart and here and there one can still often hear spoken the Swabian dialect, Schwäbisch (Schwobisch) with its customary friendly greeting of 'Grüss Gott'. " 7
*Contemporary Bavaria Showing the region referred to as Schwabia. Schwabia actually continues into westwardly neighboring Baden Wurtenberg. Stuttgart is in Baden Wurtenberg. Image from:
BUILD UP TO THE EMMIGRATION. 17th Century: A Backdrop
The 17th Century was full of wars. "There were wars of conquest and liberation, civil wars and (so-called) wars of religion which dramatically changed the relationships between countries. These wars produced the decline of Spain, which was replaced by France as the major continental power. Sweden emerged as the great power of the Baltic region. Two revolutions in England produced a unique form of government, and the creation of the United Provinces introduced into Europe an energetic and powerful center of trade as well as a major cultural center." ? (lost footnote)
The Habsburgs, masters of alliance formation through marriage, treaty, threat and at times force, were building up their power, and in 1619 Ferdinand II Habsburg would be crowned Holy Roman Emperor. He was devoutly Catholic, and his accension followed a period of protestant HRE monarchs. Religious doctrine was not always an assurance of national alliances, as evidenced in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) in which foreign Catholic states took active part against the powerful Catholic Habsburgs, fearing domination by the Hapsburg kings . Much of the conflict in Europe of this century was territorial and economic in nature (no great leap in logic) and not limited by religious doctrine or affiliation.
In this period of history, the Germany we know was in fact part of The Holy Roman Empire and extended from the Mediterranean to the North Sea, composed of independent city-states each able to leverage taxes, have there own armies, make their own money,enforce their own borders, and so a loose collection forming the whole. 10 Its main component was Germany and German speaking territory. The Germanic area of Central Europe in the year 1700 was a patchwork of some three hundred loosely organized sovereign territories wherein the delusionary concept of the divine right of kings was accepted, rulers reigned supreme within their own borders, and an emperor prevailed overall. The Empire was further structured into nine districts which were under jurisdiction of governors or "electors" who chose the emperor 10
Conflict Inside Germany The Reformation/ the Counter Reformation
At the time of the 30 Years War (began 1618), about half of Germanyís states were Protestant and half Catholic, with Lutheranism the only state recognized Protestant faith, having recieved sanction in the 1550s with the Signing of the Treaty of Augsburg. This acceptance of state sanctioned churches outside of Catholicism was hard won with each new group and the process spanned decades while religious unrest spanned centuries. In Germany, the recognition and protection of the first Protestants , the Lutherans, was gained by the Treaty of Augsberg mentioned above, the very need for which tells something of the dischord with which the Empire was dealing as a result of the Reformation and the Catholic response to it. Catholicism had to wrangle with the general complaints of the non catholic populace regarding the Catholic Church (which is how the protest-ants gained their name with the advent of Luther) and then, almost right away, the Catholics and the then nascent Protestants had to deal with a splintering, advancing Protestant theology, each sect more revolutionary than that before it. Lutherans were recognized in the Treaty of Augsburg (granting the individual German City-States the right to choose their own religion- note that Luther lived 1483-1546) , but Calvinists were not (Calvin lived 1509-1564) . Basically in the signing of the treaty ending the 30 Years war (the Treaty of Westphalia-1648) , the Treaty of Augsburg (almost 100 years earlier) was reaffirmed, and the only change in the regard currently under discussion was that Calvinism was recognized. What it meant to be recognized as a state sanctioned church is that a Lord of the city states could practise his preferred religion without fear of sanction against him, as long as it was a State sanctioned alternative to Catholicism, and this priveledge extended to his populace. Those not practising the religion of the Lord often suffered as a result no matter what his religion. Although initially the only alternative to Catholicism that enjoyed state sanction was Lutheranism, followed by a third state sanctioned religion with Calvinism nearly 100 years later, other Protestant doctrines were practised and the state sanctioning of the three religions mentioned caused all three to oppress the newer sects, just as the Lutherans joined strenuously with the Catholics in trying to erradicate Calvanism. Germany was splintered religiously as well as politically, and as the Holy Roman Emperors themselves converted, or a new Emperor acceded claiming a different church than his predecessor, the effect was felt throughout the empire and the commonerís right to practise his religion (read here, not in secrecy, in a church, with the right to burial within the religion and overseen by a church leader and with the right to marriage within the chosen doctrine as legally binding, without fear of retribution or persecution, imprisonment and/or confiscation of property and in deference to the individualís own conscience only) was entirely dependant on the leaning of his Lordís (mortal, not divine) own practise.
"In accord with the
principle of cuius regio, eiuus religio most of the population changed
its faith five times in the 16th century. Catholic doctrine, supported
by Elector Louis V (d. 1544), was followed by the Lutheran under Frederick
II (d. 1556) and Otto Henry (d. 1559), the Reformed under Frederick III
(d. 1576), again the Lutheran under Louis VI (d. 1583), and finally the
Reformed under John Kasimir (d. 1592). These ecclesiastical changes were
one of the factors which made it possible for Anabaptism (Mennonites and
Amish) to enter the Palatinate early and to develop-in spite of much
resistance-to considerable strength. (In regards to the Electoral
Palatinate itself, it ) " had become
Lutheran in 1556, and then Reformed in 1560. From 1576 to 1583 a new elector
reintroduced Lutheranism, only to have this faith replaced by the Reformed
until 1620. During the Thirty Years' War, the Spanish and Bavarian Catholics
were twice dominant, but the treaties of Westphalia placed a Reformed Elector
on the throne. After each change, the new party attempted to repress completely
the other faiths. In other words, within the space of one hundred fifty
years the official religion (in the Electoral Palatinate) had been
changed eight times"12
"The new Big Three ecclesiastical bodies (Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformed) forthrightly denied all other religious groups the right to exist within the Empire, and the citizens of each local district were forced to join whichever church was recognized by the local nobility, an administrative carry-over from the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. It is not over-simplification to frame the position of the Big Three churches to all other groups as: 'Convert, leave, or die.' " 10
11) The 30 Years War *Unidentified
The rise of the Hapsburgs occured in the 17th century with the crowning of Ferdinand II as Holy Roman Emperor in 1619, and Ferdinandís alliance with the Pope was firm. When he was named, the Protestant nobles of Bavaria rebelled and the Palatinate would suffer greatly as a result.
In 1618, in the Bohemian capital of Prague, three Imperial representatives were thrown out of a window of the Hradshin Palace by angry Bohemian Protestant nobles. The representatives survived the 70 foot drop, either through divine intervention as claimed by the Catholics, or because they landed on a dung heap as the Protestants said. Bohemia was a diverse region, with many protestant nobles. The representatives had been tossed because the man who was soon to become Emperor, the future Emperor Ferdinand II, was a devout Catholic and had made it clear he wouldn't tolerate Protestantism. This event is called the "Defenestration of Prague" and it started the Thirty Years War. In 1619, when Ferdinandís ascension should have occured, the Bohemians refused the crown to Ferdinand, and he went to war to gain it, intent on destroying Protestantism in that part of Europe. He quickly gained Bohemia, and defeated the other Protestant regions that rose against him despite Protestant Dutch intervention, and with the help of Catholic Spain. Soon not only the Protestant countries of Europe were gravely concerned but also Catholic countries, especially France, fretting that the war would lead to Europeís domination by the Habsburgs- for them it was not so important he was Catholic, the Habsburgs were just getting too powerful. The Danes threw in troops, the French, though Catholic, gave support to the Dutch and Swedes, Catholic French troops were sent into battle against Catholic Imperial troops of the Emperor. Catholic Spain lost it's Atlantic trade routes and lost to the Catholic French and the Holy Roman Emperor finally had to sign the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. Regarding the war for the German people, I think the following pretty much sums it up.
"The real losers in the war
were the German people. Over 300,000 had been killed in battle. Millions
of civilians had died of malnutrition and disease, and wandering, undisciplined
troops had robbed, burned, and looted almost at will. Most authorities
believe that the population of the Empire dropped from about 21,000,000
to 13,500,000 between 1618 and 1648. Even if they exaggerate, the Thirty
Years War remains one of the most terrible in history."14
"Trade and industry were non-existent; towns and cities were in ruins and starving peasants even resorted to cannibalism. It is estimated that half the population died."15
Edict of Nantes and its Subsequent Revocation
The 30 years War, waged 1618-1648, preceeded the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (signed Oct 22 1685 in the forty-third year of Louis XIVís reign) and which occured in predominantly Catholic France. The effect of the Revocation involved much of Europe, it could not be contained to France alone, and so involved Germany . As a result of the mass migration caused by the Revocation and its effects, Holland, Switzerland and England also became involved .
It was Henry IV of France (Henry IV The Great Of France, King Of France
DE BOURBON ID # 19524 on this tree and The guy Queen Margot married in
the movie bearing her name) who produced the Edict of Nantes back
in 1598 following the French Wars of Religion and a long period of
civil unrest and battles. In 1572, protestant Henry , then far removed
from the throne and with little likelihood of accension to it, married
his cousin- the French Princess Margaret (Margaret De Valois ID # 19525
on this tree-Queen Margot in the movie again bearing her name), daughter
of Catherine de Medici (Catherine of Florence De MEDICI -ID # 19524
on this tree). Catherine de Medici was the widow of Henry II of France
and mother of three successive Catholic kings, Francis II, Charles IX,
and Henry III . Henry and Margaret married on 18 August 1572 in an attempt
by the Valois to placate the Protestants. The de Valois family had many
boys to fill the throne, but fate would leave the Valois line without progeny
when all the sons had gone through their reigns. This however, was not
considered a real possibility at the time of Henry and Margaretís marriage.
The wedding of Henry and Margaret had brought Protestant nobles and commoners
to Paris for the celebrations, and its occasion allowed for the St Bartholomewís
massacre which occured on the 24th of August but spread through Paris and
into the French countryside, despite Royal edicts after they initiated
it that the unrest and persecution cease. Just prior to the massacre, Catharine
de Medici had attempted the assassination of Protestant Coligny (Gaspard
II, Ammiraglio Di Francia DE COLIGNY ID # 19274 on this tree) , whom she
detested for his influence upon her son, the monarch, Charles IX, and in
an attempt to reassert her control of her son, the King. "
The decision to have recourse to a massacre arose in Catherine's mind under
pressure of a sort of madness; she saw in this decision a means of preserving
her influence over the king and of preventing the vengeance of Protestants,
who were exasperated by the attack made on Coligny"
17 The massacre started at midnight on the advent of the 24th, and
itís first act was the this-time-succesful murder of Coligny, his body
once lifeless subjected to kicking and beheading. Margaret, the bride
to Henry, petitioned her new husband Henryís safety, and Henry
was taken to the King who requested his conversion; Henry refused, but
remained safe, while other Protestants were brutally murdered throughout
the city. Were it not for the now dead Colignyís friendship with the Catholic
King and all that that represented, Henry very well might have been murdered
through efforts of Catherine de Medici, the Kingís mother. The St
Bartholomewís Day Massacre caused "the
death of 3,000 Huguenots in Paris. The fervor spread and lasted until October
despite royal orders for it to stop. By the end, 70,000
Huguenots were murdered in France. Once over, it led to the resumption
of Civil War."16 "Thirty-five
livres were paid to the grave-diggers of the Cemetery of the Innocents
for the interment of 1100 corpses; but many were thrown into the Seine.
Ranke and Henri Martin estimate the number of victims in Paris at 2000....
In the provinces also massacres occurred. On the evening of 24 August,
a messenger brought to the Provost of Orléans a letter bearing the
royal seal and ordering him to treat all Huguenots like those of Paris
and to exterminate them, 'taking care to let nothing leak out and by shrewd
dissimulation to surprise them all'....In many places an excess of zeal
led to an increase of brutality. Lyons, Toulouse, Bordeaux, and Rouen all
had their massacres. So many Lyonese corpses drifted down the Rhône
to Arles that, for three months, the Arlesians did not want to drink the
river water. At Bayonne and at Nantes compliance with royal orders was
refused. The intervals between these massacres prove that on the first
day the Court did not issue formal orders in all directions; for instance,
the Toulouse massacre did not occur till 23 September and that of Bordeaux
till 3 October. " 17
Despite his near death with the St Bartholomewís massacre, and the risks he took in refusing conversion even as the killing occured outside the doors of the Louvre in which he was housed with the King at the time of those events ,17 years following the St Bartholomewís massacre Henry of Navarre Bourbon would return to Paris to be crowned the French monarch and, on this occasion, would convert to Catholicism. His conversion was made in an attempt to unite a very divided France, for he knew he would never capture the faith of the largely Catholic (90%) population. He abandoned Protestantism in his own practise, feeling the peace of his country might be found with a tolerant Catholic king. In 1598 he issued the Edict of Nantes which defined the rights of the French Protestants (AKA Huguenots AKA French Calvinists). The Edictís Revocation 87 years later (Oct 22 1685 ) by Louis XIV (ID 19576 on this tree) caused one more period of disaster for Europe , but at the time of itís signing, Henry of Navaree, now Henry IV of France, granted the protestant French the right to worship in public, hold public office, assemble, enter universities and administer their towns. The edict, though, denied them some rights too, and is considered conciliatory to the Catholics while still a seriously important document regarding religious freedom and one often cited for itís political and diplomatic genius.ÝIt included the formation of "special courts, composed of Roman Catholic and Protestant judges, to judge cases involving Protestants; retention of the organization of the Protestant church in France; and Protestant control of some 200 cities then held by the Huguenots, including such strongholds as La Rochelle , with the king contributing to the maintenance of their garrisons and fortifications.
"The last condition, originally devised for an eight-year period but subsequently renewed, was to serve as guarantee to the Huguenots that their other rights would be respected; however, it gave French Protestantism a virtual state within a state and was incompatible with the centralizing policies of (the later) cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin and of Louis XIV. The fall (1628) of La Rochelle to Richelieu's army and the Peace of Alais (1629) marked the end of Huguenot political privileges. After 1665, Louis XIV was persuaded by his Roman Catholic advisers to embark on a policy of persecuting the Protestants. By a series of edicts that narrowly interpreted the Edict of Nantes, he reduced it to a scrap of paper. Finally, in 1685, he declared that the majority of Protestants had been converted to Catholicism and that the edict of 1598, having thus become superfluous, was revoked. No French Protestants were allowed to leave the country; those who openly remained Protestants were promised the right of private worship and freedom from molestation, but the promise was not kept. " 2
With the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 "The Huguenots were not allowed to hold public offices any longer. Protestant marriages were declared illegal. Pastors were ordered to leave the country in fifteen days. Parents could no longer instruct their children in the Reformed faith, but were compelled, under heavy penalty, to have them baptized and instructed by the priests. They were forbidden to emigrate, and those who had done so must return in four months or suffer the confiscation of their property. Churches and records were destroyed. Notwithstanding the most strenuous efforts to prevent it, there was a stampede of the Protestants to leave the kingdom, and we are told that about 400,000 of them left France.îîThousands fled abroad to escape the system of dragonnades, and several provinces were virtually depopulated. The revocation of the Edict of Nantes weakened the French economy by driving out a highly skilled and industrious segment of the nation, and its ruthless application increased the detestation in which England and the Protestant German states held the French king. Its object-to make France a Catholic state-was fulfilled on paper only, for many secretly remained faithful to Protestantism, while the prestige of the Roman Catholic Church suffered as a result of Louis's intolerance." 2
Our Forney cousins, and the Collateral families La Fevre and Ferree likewise present on this tree were directly affected by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, some members seeking asylum in Germany . Our direct German ancestors already present in the Palatinate were also affected.
13) The War of the Palatinate
The effects of the French civil war precipitated by the Revocation was not contained to France alone causing the exodus as noted above of thousands of Huguenots into other areas including neighboring Germany and especially the Palatinate within it. This was followed in 1689 by the War of the Grand Alliance which lasted until 1697 and was precipitated with the marching of the French Sun King into the Palatinate in 1688 after he claimed it. Louis XIVís "influence over the German states (through a combination of pensioning and lobbying amongst the Elector-princes of the states that directly bordered France and the river Rhine) peaked just before 1685. "ì 19
The Holy Roman Emperor, then engaged with the Turks, was unable to protect his populace.
The War of the Grand Alliance is likewise known as The Nine Years' War, the War of the Palatinate, the War of the League of Augsburg, and "on the American continent, as King William's War and itís effects cascaded into the New World in the form of the French and Indian Wars."20 The War of the Grand Alliance (1688-1697) marked an intermittent epoch in the ongoing European wars that had never truly ended after the Thirty Years' War and the Peace of Westphalia (1648). "So much international concern was there over growing French hegemony, that Britain led a coalition of powers to oppose her. These struggles became known as the War of the Palatinate (or the War of the Grand Alliance or War of the League of Augsburg, 1688-1697). One major effect was large scale emigration from 1689 to 1697, and later, giving rise, for example, in the United States to the phenomenon of the Pennsylvania Dutch." 21
I'll leave it to the authors cited below to explain the effect of Louis XIV on our area of Germany.
"In the latter part of the Seventeenth Century the fertile lands of the Palatinate were made the scene of devastation, spoliation and ruin. Louis XIV suddently precipitated eighty thousand troops on these people within the short period of seven weeks, and changed that Paradise into a desert. Heidelberg, Mannheim and Worms were looted and partly burned, twelve hundred villages were razed to the ground and 40,000 inhabitants robbed of all they had. For example, during the last night of a French commander's stay in one of these towns, he caused it to be so completely and methodically plundered, that he had himself nothing but straw to sleep on; and the next day this bedding was employed in setting fire to the town, which was presently reduced to ashes. Since the day of the Huns, Europe beheld no such devastation. The Emperor of Germany who should have protected the Palatinate, had his hands full with the Turks just then, and could do nothing to help them. " 22
"In February, 1689, . . . [General] Melac, blew up the walls of Heidelberg and its castle towers, and laid half the city in ashes. . . . Such of the inhabitants as tried to rescue their goods were slain. Every where were found the corpses of wretched men frozen to death. The citizens of Manheim were compelled to assist in destroying their fortifications, and were then driven out, hungry and naked, into the winter cold, and their city was burned. . . ." 10
"Prior to the peace of Ryswick (1697) and the succeeding peace of Utrecht (1713) the people were denied every opportunity to recover. Congregations had to worship in the open air, and thousands were compelled to flee from their homes. The district of Sinsheim, in which the Spenglers"(And SWOPES) "resided, was scourged and devastated. In 1674 Turenne invaded it, the German forces being under the command of the Duke of Lorraine. In 1689 the city of Sinsheim was utterly destroyed by the French and the inhabitants exiled. Immense multitudes went down the Rhine. They arrived at Holland, many utterly destitute, and encamped by thousands in the environs of Amsterdam and Rotterdam, where the Dutch did all they could to help them, their persecuted brethren in faith. It was from the latter point that the Swiss, Palatines , and refugee Huguenots sailed to find an asylumn on our hospitable shores. Thus began that great influx of Germans whose numbers and character greatly affrighted the English of Pennsylvania as to their supremacy, and to prevent their political ascendency denied them for many years the privileges of citizenship. "22
" .... At the peace of Ryswick, October 30, 1697, ...the famous Ryswick clause was included, by which the churches were to stand as they had been during the hostile occupation... The Protestants ... lost their churches, and the Catholic service was restored in entirely reformed communities. "10
"Lord (Thomas Babington) Macaulay described the devastation in the Palatinate this way:The French commander announced to near half a million of human beings that he granted them three days of grace, and that, within that time, they must shift for themselves. Soon the roads and fields, which then lay deep in snow, were blackened by innumerable multitudes of men, women, and children flying from their homes. Many died of cold and hunger; but enough survived to fill the streets of all the cities of Europe with lean and squalid beggars, who had once been thriving farmers and shopkeepers. Meanwhile the work of destruction began. The flames went up from every market-place, every hamlet, every parish church, every country seat. . . . The fields where the corn had been sown were ploughed up. The orchards were hewn down. . . . The magnificent Cathedral of Spires perished, and with it the marble sepulchres of eight Ceasars. The coffins were broken open. The ashes were scattered to the winds." 10
This War of the Grand Alliance which ended in 1697 was then followed with the start of the War of the Spanish Succesion in 1701, and with it, the French again marched into the Palatinate.
14) The War of
the Spanish Succession-More armies in the
"The eighteenth century began with the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714). In 1707 a French army under Marshall Claude-Louis-Hector Villars marched through the Palatinate spreading terror and death. Along with oppressive taxation and religious turmoil, life for Palatines was once again filled with suffering. Then came a blow which broke the native spirit of many a Palatine; it was delivered by the wrath of nature when the winter of 1708-09 was extremely harsh and long, and soon French troops were in the German countryside."13
15) The History and
Rise of Pietism
The effect of all these events, the wars of the Grand Alliance and the later War of the Spanish Succession (1701-14) devastated central Germany yet again, in particular, the Palatinate. In the midst of the War of Spanish Succession came the freeze of 1708-1709. One result of all these alienating events would be the rise of religious pietism, a new form of spirituality, which would suffer itís own persecution. "Economic burdens on local nobility were immense. Farm lands were not replanted due to constant invasion, and people were often forced into thievery and immorality in order to survive. The future appeared to offer no hope or relief, only despair and gloom. But then something new happened which took the Big Three (The Catholic, Lutheran and Reformed Churches) by surprise. On the soil of bloodshed and inter-faith disunity, another religious movement sprung forth. Pietism would also became the next receptor of state imprisonment and execution. It was a logical outgrowth of a religious populace that was exhausted of both war and the insensitivity of church leadership; a clergy that physically enforced attendance at worship and obeisance before dignitaries. Because worship had become dull and insensitive (more of a political tool) people naturally turned inwardly for spiritual renewal. Originally content to remain as a sub-group within the Big Three state churches, Pietists endeavored to substitute devotional formalism with a more genuine intellectual and emotional experience. Adherents stressed that faith, regeneration, and sanctification were qualities to be experienced rather than being explained by a church official. Local governments, overwhelmed with administrative disruptions and economic recovery from war, took little notice of Pietism in its earliest form. However, when the Separatists evolved, that would all change, for this new sub-group desired to clearly take the movement outside of the Big Three, and possibly exist as free independent groups without denominational structure. "13
But back to the Big Freeze and its outcome: The effect of the freeze
of 1708-09 was so profound in itself it forced an emmigration. It
was so cold that wood could not burn and some say birds fell frozen from
the air. ìOn 10 January 1709 the Rhine River froze and was closed for five
weeks. Wine froze into ice. Grapevines died. Cattle died in their sheds.
Many Palatines traveled down the Rhine to Rotterdam in late February and
March. In Rotterdam they were housed in shacks covered with reeds. The
ones who made it to London were housed in 1,600 tents surrounding the city.
Londoners were resentful. Other Palatines were sent to other places, such
as Ireland, the Scilly Isles, the West Indies, and New York.
"Queen Anne was related to the ruler of the Palatinate. On 24 March 1709 a British naturalization act was passed whereby any foreigner who would take the oaths to the British government and profess himself a Protestant would be immediately naturalized and have all the privileges of an English-born subject for one shilling."21
"The citizens of London were astonished
to learn, in May and June, 1709, that 5,000 men, women and children, Germans
from the Rhine, were under tents in the suburbs. By October the number
had increased to 13,000, and comprised husbandmen, tradesmen, school teachers
and ministers. These emigrants had deserted the Palatinate, owing to French
oppression and the persecution by their prince, the elector John William,
of the house of Newburgh, who had become a devoted Romanist, though his
subjects were mainly Lutherans and Calvinists. ...Very few of the Palatines
sought to be naturalized in London, and probably a still smaller number
of them were attracted thither by a knowledge (of the act passed to naturalize
16) The Effect on Pennsylvania
The effect of the 17th century in Germany would have profound effect on the American British Colonies.
"The Germans were the largest non-English group in colonial America. . . . Pennsylvania alone had 100,000 Germans by 1776, and many thousands more had settled on the frontiers of Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina. . . . By 1709 some 13,000 destitute German Palatines had arrived in England. But England was only a temporary stopping place, and nearly half of them went on to New York, North Carolina and Pennsylvania.
The first wave of German immigrants brought mostly German Quakers; Mennonites; Baptist Brethren, or Dunkers; and other small sects... A second wave after 1730 consisted largely of Lutherans and Calvinists."10
"In 1731 there were 15,000 members of the Reformed Church in Pennsylvania from the Palatinate. Up to 1776, when the importations ceased, 39,000 German emigrants had arrived and settled mainly in Lancaster, York, Berks and Northampton counties. As early as 1790, when the population of this State (Pennsylvania) did not exceed 435,000 there were already 145,000 Germans" 22
The Mennonite Experience Germany and Switzerland
Regarding Bishop Herr and our other Mennonite ancestors, I am providing a history of their European experience, full of oppression, suppression, exile, confiscation, torture, imprisonment and corporal punishment, as presented in the Mennonite Encyclopedia, sited by source given in footnote.
For the 7 articles of the faith that details the tenets held by the
Mennonites i have linked to the online transcript of The Schleitheim
Confession ( Adopted by a Swiss Brethren Conference, February 24, 1527).
Of interest as one reads this very large text may be the specifics involving our Bar direct ancestors. Our ancestor Heinrich Bar wrote a letter in " 1662, requesting to be excused from paying 18 florins to the authorities to get married or have it confirmed. He pleaded that his mother's family had provided one-third of the employed help in the House of Streichenberg, and since her death his household was depleted to the extent that he also must look for a female helper, as well as look for a companion and helper in his household. The reply, dated April 29, 1662, said the rule was not to be relaxed" 24
"Accordingly the 400-year history of the Anabaptists-Mennonites falls into three clearly defined eras: (1) from the origin of Anabaptism ca. 1525 to its almost complete extinction in the Thirty Years War (100 years); (2) from the immigration of Swiss Mennonites from the middle of the 17th century until the reorganization of the Palatinate ca.1800 (150 years); (3) from the beginning of the freedom of the 19th century to the present (150 years). " 12b
I am including the text relevant to the first two periods as this pertains to our Ancestors who left before the third and fourth in Germany. It is noteworthy that no Amish sect exists in Germany today. The following text is in entirity from the source Sited by firstname.lastname@example.org in his web pages as noted in the footnote details.
"I. The origin of Anabaptism in the Palatinate presumably precedes the formation of the first congregation in Switzerland. Johannes Risser, pastor of the Sembach congregation in 1832-68, says that "already by 1522, and especially after the Peasant Wars (1525)" there were Anabaptists in the Palatinate, although he fails to give any proof for 1522 date. In 1526 Jakob Kautz (q.v.), a native of the Palatinate (Grossbaclenheim) and a Lutheran preacher at Worms, became an Anabaptist. In 1527 Hans Denk (q.v.) and Ludwig Haetzer (q.v.) were living in Worms and here published their German translation of the Prophets, which soon went through thirteen editions. Worms was probably also the scene of the first adult baptisms. 'People from the Palatinate who were rebaptized at Worms are persecuted, imprisoned, and the same is happening in other provinces' (Nikolaus Thomae, priest of Bergzabern).12
"The leading Protestant clergymen
of the Palatinate were not completely unsympathetic with the early Anabaptists.
When Hans Denk, for example, on his flight from Nurnberg, Augsburg, and
Strasbourg came to the Palatinate in early 1527 he was kindly received
and heard by Nikolaus Thomas in Bergzabern. He wrote, 'In a fraternal manner
Denk dealt with us. They parted as friends, although in many respects their
ideas differed. When I accompanied Denk he earnestly admonished me to live
a blameless life in accord with the Gospel, for which I am very grateful
to him.' In a letter to K. Hubert, Bucer's famulus, dated Jan. 28, 1529,
he says of five Anabapists who were employed in building the prince's castle
in Bergzabern that he associated with them 'on an entirely friendly basis,'
for they were 'God-fearing and honest people.'
"Soon after this Hans Denk was in Landau where Johannes Bader (q.v.) was promoting the Reformation. Bader was just on the point of writing his Briiderliche Warriung, a polemic against the Anabaptists who had a considerable following around Landau even before Denk's appearance there.....Bader did not hesitate to call for their forcible suppression by the state. In early 1528 a mandate was issued in Landau forbidding Anabaptists to stay there or the inhabitants to give them lodging, both on penalty of corporal punishment.
"Suddenly the sharpest persecution set in against the Anabaptists. On March 5, 1528, the unstable Elector Louis V, 1508-44, upon the insistence of Emperor Charles V, issued a mandate against the Anabaptists referring to the imperial mandate of Jan. 4, 1528, which demanded capital punishment for Anabaptists. Soon many of the prisons were full to overflowing. In Alzey (q.v.) many lay "in arrest," as the elector wrote in 1528, "for a long time." A letter written by J. Cochiaeus (q.v.) to Erasmus (q.t,.) on Jan. 8, 1528, contains the information that eighteen Anabaptists were imprisoned for a considerable time at Alzey and had been before the court several times. In Germany their number had reputedly risen to 18,000.
"The Anabaptist trial at Alzey created wide excitement. There was general uncertainty concerning the correct judgment of the Anabaptists, from the elector, who sought the advice of jurists and theologians, to the local officials, who kept asking for instructions. The Palatine Chancellor Florenz von Venningen in 1527 wrote an extensive document which argued that since the prisoners had accepted rebaptism they were to be punished by death. The document was sent for consideration to the juristic faculties at Cologne, Mainz, Trier, Freiburg, Ingolstadt, Tbingen, Erfurt, Leipzig, Wittenberg, and Heidelberg. Erfurt and Wittenberg declined to take a position, but the others expressed their agreement.
"The Anabaptist prisoners of Alzey were warmly defended by Johann Odenbach (q.v.), the Protestant pastor of Obermoschel. His "Sendbrief und Ratschlag" to the judges tells them that they have treated many criminals better in prison than these poor people who have committed no crime but have merely in error had themselves baptized. "See with what great patience, love, and devotion these people have died, how honorably they have resisted the world! ... They are holy martyrs of God."
"In spite of intercession the Anabaptists at Alzey were executed, the men by beheading and the women by drowning. The exact number of the victims cannot be definitely ascertained. Julius Lober's martyr list mentions fourteen in Alzey, three in Heidelberg, and five in Bruchsal. The Hutterite chronicles give 350 as the total number of martyrs in the Palatinate, based on reports of refugees who escaped to Moravia and related that the Anabaptists were "taken to their execution like sheep to slaughter." One of the last martyrs was Philipp von Langenlonsheim, executed at Kreuznach in 1529.
"After 1529 there were probably no Anabaptist executions in the Palatinate. Michel Leubel, the details of whose trial were recently made public and who was drowned in the Rhein at Speyer in 1533, may have been an exception. The Protestant electors, beginning with Frederick II, who became a Lutheran soon after assuming the government in 1544, tried to win the Anabaptists back to the state church by kind methods. Under Frederick II, who was engaged in conflict with Catholicism, Anabaptism seems to have been firmly implanted in the Palatinate. Hutterite missioners in the second half of the century induced many Anabaptists to go to Moravia, where the brotherhood was enjoying its Golden Age. In the congregations at Worms and Kreuznach serious differences arose concerning doctrine and discipline. The courts were constantly troubled by the property left by the fugitives; in spite of emigration there were continued reports of the spread of the movement.
"The church inspection ordered by Otto Henry under the Superintendent of Strasbourg, Johann Marbach confirmed these reports. It was discovered that Anabaptism was strongest where there was a lack of intelligent preachers of the Gospel. Thereupon the pastors were urged to learn what the erroneous articles of the sects were and to counter them in the pulpit, not with noise and derogatory words but with gentleness and honesty; this would be better than prematurely to threaten these people with severe punishment, for they were otherwise honorable, decent, and obedient. However, they should not be allowed to hold official positions, and their dead should be denied a funeral sermon and ringing of the bells.
"Upon the request of the Anabaptists a disputation was held at Pfeddersheim in 1557, in which over forty Anabaptists, including nineteen Vorsteher, took part. The questions debated concerned infant baptism, government office, the oath, the reason for their leaving the state church, communion, and the ban. The church declared the Anabaptists defeated; but the Anabaptists persisted in their convictions. Soon after this some important Lutheran and Catholic theologians held a disputation at Worms and came to an agreement, not concerning the treatment of Zwinglians and Sacramentists, but on the 'condemnation of the Anabaptists.' Thereupon Otto Henry issued a severe mandate against the Anabaptists, threatening them with expulsion and punishment according to imperial decree; it was, however, not strictly enforced. Instead, the peaceful Anabaptists were tacitly allowed to stay in the country.
"Under the Calvinist Frederick III
Anabaptism became still more firmly entrenched in the Palatinate. Frederick
was attacked by both the Catholics and the Lutherans; he was blamed for
the presence of the Anabaptists in his country. But he continued his practice
of trying to convert them by conversations with clergymen. ...
"The lot of the Palatine Mennonites became harder under the son of Frederick III, the Lutheran Elector Louis VI, 1576-83, who also took sharp measures against the Calvinists. He began to expel the Anabaptists from the country, confiscate their goods to be kept under curators. If an Anabaptist let himself be persuaded to accept the state church, he received his property back after an examination by the superintendent. The superintendents and the pastors were reminded by an "electoral instruction' of Aug. 1, 1579, 'to refute Anabaptist errors clearly from the pulpit frequently and to explain thoroughly the practice and benefits of the sacraments." Obstinate Anabaptists were to be imprisoned in the tower on bread and water, but were to be instructed both within the prison and outside several times, "that they may be moved to real conversion.' In cases of continued persistence they were to be expelled from the country; this also happened to the Calvinists, one of whom was called almost an Anabaptist. Upon the early death of Louis VI his brother John Casimir succeeded to the government, 1583-91, who continued his Reformed father's church polity. His brother's Anabaptist mandate was once more proclaimed, but not strictly enforced. It was opposed by the government officials rather than the clergy. The burgrave of Alzey reminded the government that the state cannot be governed exclusively on confessional lines, but that political and economic principles must also be considered. The government once more urged the church council to conduct another disputation, but was refused on the ground that the others had been fruitless. Thereupon the church council issued a general order to all the inspectors who had to deal with Anabaptists. The pastors were doubtful of results, for the Anabaptists would, as one of them said, 'see nothing in the members of the church but what will hurt them in their hearts and will cause horror and disgust, namely, an unrestrained Epicurean life with cursing, swearing, overeating, drinking, dancing, quarreling, fighting, scolding, fornication, immorality, and the like.' In fact the Anabaptists kept replying, 'One could read God's Word also outside the churches, since the people who go to church are very wicked.' Many a pastor had to work hard with these Anabaptists. One complained that he had 'become hoarse and almost sick.'
"The youthful Elector Frederick IV, 1592-1610, like his uncle wanted peace in church affairs. When complaints were heard about new inroads by Anabaptism, he ordered in 1596 to devote greater care to their conversion. The church councillors, on the other hand, demanded severer proceedings by the government. One week later, June 29, 1596, appeared the order of the councillors, that the Anabapists were to be strictly watched, "although the pastors of all the villages shall on their part neglect nothing of their constant and zealous instruction and admonition."
"By the turn of the century, in spite of oppression and emigration to Moravia, Anabaptism had increased noticeably; for in the Catholic and Lutheran vicinity of Frankfort, e.g., the bishopric of Speyer and the graviate of Leiningen, it was much more seriously persecuted. At the close of 1600 the Reformed councillors reported that the Anabaptists in Dirmstein, Weisenheim , and Heppenheim were becoming more established and that ...great numbers of them gathered near Erpolzheim.. 'When they are ordered to go to church they say they have a large church which has a big roof.' in Kriegsheim 66 were reported in 1601. In 1608 it was reported-though later denied-that even the schoolmaster and his son had attended their meeting.
"When Frederick V (the 'Winter King,' d. 1632 also present on this tree and married to our Stuart cousin) became Palatine elector in 1610 and the Thirty Years War broke out in 1618, there were still some Anabaptists in the Palatinate.... In the last Anabaptist documents before the Thirty Years' War the church councillors raised serious complaint about the increase in the number of Anabaptists in the district of Alzey. It can certainly be assumed that a number of Mennonite families maintained themselves in the Palatinate throughout the war, and then joined the immigrant Mennonites.
"II. During the Thirty Years' War the Palatinate was almost completely depopulated and devastated. The number of Reformed clergymen had been reduced to one tenth of its former number by murder, flight, and emigration. Elector Charles Louis, 1648-80, (Charles I Louis Palatinate, Elector Palatine WITTELSBACH-also present on this tree) called back the surviving ones. The repopulation of his lands was a serious concern to him. He was generous not only to the Lutherans and Catholics, but also to the Mennonites. He admitted a number of Moravian Hutterite families to Mannheim (q.v.) in 1655, who established a small Bruderhof here, which Duchess Elizabeth Charlotte of Orleans, the elector's daughter, recalled in her letters written in 1718. Soon after the war a Mennonite congregation assembled in Mannheim, to whom the elector assigned space for a meetinghouse. He was especially interested in experienced settlers who could rebuild the country. Thus he also admitted the Mennonites expelled from other countries.
"One of the first groups to settle in the Palatinate after the Thirty Years War came from Transylvania. After severe oppression several of these families emigrated and in 1655 settled in Kriegsheim, Osthofen, Harxheim, Heppenheirn and Wolfsheim near Worms.... Some had become Quakers by 1665; e.g., the Schuhmacher family in Kriegsheim.
"The state church was, however, less tolerant than the elector. Already in 1654 voices are heard complaining "about the offensive confusion with the Anabaptists, who despise proper church services and the holy sacraments, let their children run about unbaptized, hold their services boldly in the forests, and even solemnize marriages.' From this time on, the church senate continued to warn the government that 'it is a necessity to stem the obstinate, fanatical stubbornness of such people and bring them under the discipline of the Reformed Church, marriage, baptism, etc.'
"In spite of all obstacles the Mennonites made efforts to preserve official toleration and recognition from the elector. In the Palatinate to the right of the Rhine, where also some Anabaptist remnants had been preserved since the 16th century, two Mennonites, Hans Mayer and Hans Koerber, decided in 1653 to present a petition to the elector in the name of the congregation, in which they called themselves "Mennists," to obtain permission to meet for worship like their brethren on the left side of the Rhine. But it took a decade, besides the intervention of influential Quakers and even the intermediation of the King of England before Charles Louis was willing to grant them a limited religious freedom. Finally on Aug. 4, 1664, after much effort, they obtained the important general concession which permitted them to meet in groups of more than twenty; but they were forbidden to admit non-Mennonites to the meetings. In return they had to pay an annual fee of six guilders per person as 'Mennist Recognition Money,' a considerable tax, which was later doubled. Nevertheless this concession was considered a great privilege, meetings having been completely prohibited in 1661. A limit of 200 families was set for the total Mennonite population.
"The Mennonites in the Palatinate were increased in number in 1671-72 when persecution in Switzerland reached its climax. The refugees were received as brethren by the Palatine Mennonites and were given generous support from the Dutch Mennonites, who had already intervened in Switzerland for their toleration. On Nov. 2, 1671, Jakob Everling, the preacher of the Obersulzen congregation, reported that 200 persons had come to the Palatinate, some of whom were cripples, old people of 70-90 years, and families of eight to ten children. They arrived destitute with their bundles on their backs and their children in their arms. In January 1672, 215 persons had arrived west of the Rhine and 428 cast of the Rhine. The influx of single families and groups continued into the 18th century. Especially in 1709-11 many Mennonite families came from Alsace and Switzerland. Thus the numerous small congregations still existing in the Palatinate were established.
"By the end of the 17th century new difficulties overwhelmed the new settlers; economically by the French invasion under Louis XIV, ecclesiastically by the Catholic reaction under the electors of the Zweibriicken-Neuburg line which replaced the Protestant Simmern line. In 1674 and 1689 large areas and numerous towns of the Palatinate were devastated, causing serious losses to many Mennonites. Elector Philip William, 1685-90, who had renewed the Mennonite concession in 1686, died as a fugitive in Vienna. His strictly Catholic son and successor, John William, 1690-1716, was very slow to renew the concession; it was finally granted in 1698 after many petitions, and demanded high protection fees. The early years of his reign saw the expulsion of the Mennonites from Rheydt in 1694, which caused con- sternation in the entire Protestant world, and also the emigration of a group of Mennonites from lbers- heim to Friedrichstadt in Schleswig-Holstein in 1693.
"The first emigration of Palatine Mennonites to North America also occurred at the close of the 17th century. In 1685 a Quaker who had previously been a Mennonite, Peter Schumacher of Kriegsheim near Worms, emigrated to Germantown, Pa. In the spring of 1707 the Kolb brothers-Martin, Johannes, Jakob, and Heinrich---emigrated. Martin Kolb (q.t,.), who settled at Skippack, was one of the first Mennonite preachers in America. He was probably the instigator of further Mennonite emigration, which increased rapidly under Elector Charles Philip, 1716-42, for he doubled their protection fees, limited their right to purchase land, seeking thus to prevent the number of Mennonite families in the Palatinate to rise above 200. In the spring of 1717 some 300 Palatine Mennonites were in Rotterdam to embark for Pennsylvania where religious liberty was unrestricted; they received financial support from the Dutch Mennonites. (Editors note: THIS is the group in which Hans Herr embarked for America). With this group a stream of German immigration set in which continued almost without interruption until the second half of the 19th century. By 1732, 3,000 Palatine Mennonites had arrived in America. By 1773 the immigration lists showed over 30,000 Palatine names, mostly non- Mennonite. The Mennonites in America of Palatine origin numbered ca. 150,000 souls in 1935, of whom 35,000 were living in Lancaster County alone. A change in favor of the Mennonites took place during the long rule, 1742-99, of the enlightened Charles Theodore of the house of Pfalz-Sulzbach. Although he was Catholic, he granted extensive liberties to the Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites, and Jews. The concession to the Mennonites was re-newed on Nov. 27, 1743, and the protection fee reduced to six guilders. 'In return the Mennonites advanced the sum of 10,000 guilders toward the election and coronation expenses. Nevertheless the government at first still worked toward the reduction of "this daily increasing condemned sect." Later, however, it realized "that no better, more industrious, and competent subjects are to be found, who, with the exception of their religion, their faith, and their error, should serve the members of other faiths as an example in morals as well as in working day and night.'
"Since that time, about the middle of the 18th century, the Mennonites of the Palatinate achieved a leading position in agriculture. 'The most perfect farmers in Germany are the Palatine Mennonites,' wrote the State Economist Christian W. Dohm in the Deutsches Museum in 1778. The official of Hilsbach said about them on Jan. 21, 1794, 'They are exemplary, industrious, and intelligent farmers. It would be desirable that every farmer would appropriate their good knowledge of agriculture and stock raising.' Jung-Stilling (q.v.), the pious physician and economist, described the family life of David Moellinger (q.v.) of Monsheim as "the highest ideal of agricultural happiness,' calling him the 'archfarmer of our Palatine country and perhaps of the Holy Roman Empire," and his friend and brother.
"About this time the Mennonites of the Palatinate were also given more and more recognition by the Protestant Church, to which Pietism contributed not a little. Gottfried Arnold (q.v.) had already in 1699, in his Unparteusche Kirchen-und Ketzer-historic, defended the Mennonites. Gerhard Tersteegen.(q.v.), like Jung-Stilling, carried on personal correspondence with the Palatine Mennonites, and called Adam Krehbill, the pastor at Weierhof, 'a man according to God's heart.' Peter Weber (q.v.) of Hardenberg was a zealous devotee of Pietism.
"Now nearly all governmental restrictions on the Mennonites of the Palatinate were removed. On April 20, 1769, Jakob Hirschler, elder of the Gerols- heim congregation, wrote to Hans van Steen in Danzig, 'Although our ruler is Roman Catholic, nevertheless nearly everywhere Catholics, Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites, and Jews are living side by side. We are permitted to meet openly for worship wherever we wish, also observe baptism and communion and solemnize marriages. Also we bury our dead openly, and funeral addresses are held, often with many hearers, as in other religions.'
"At this time the first Mennonite meetinghouses were built in the Palatinate-Weierhof 1773, Sembach 1777, Eppstein and Friedelsheim 1779. The rulers willingly gave their consent, although they stipulated that the church must have the external appearance of a farm building. The names and membership of the congregations are given by Jakob Hirschler for 1769 as follows: "Erpolzheim and Friedelsheim 140, Spitalhof 45, Ruchheim 26, Alsheim and lbersheimerhof 120. Oberflorsheim and Spiesheim 100, Kriegsheim 52, Wartenberg and Sembach 250, Weierhof 90, Rheingrafenstein 32, Roedern and Schafbusch 45, Boechingen 68, Zweibrucken 94, Gerolsheim, Obersulzen, and Heppenheim, 112 Hoeningen 54, Eppstein-Friesenheim-Mannheim" (no figures given, but "some 20 households "given for Mannheim). In addition there were numerous scattered Amish families living in the Palatinate around Zweibriicken and lxheim.All the congregations were served by lay elders and preachers from their own midst." 12b
But by this time, the exodus to which we owe our heritage in form of our first known American immigrants had already occured.
The above text regarding the Mennonite history is in entirity from the source Sited by email@example.com in his web pages as noted in the footnote details.
To Top of Page [ Our Germans Within The Vines]
Sources Outside these pages useful for Further Research
Germany GenWeb Project
Sources for this Page:
1-John Howell, A Brief History of Germany, from GeneologyPro, Online Journal reprint from Journal of Online Genealogy September 1997
2-Electric Libraryís Encyclopedia.com http://www.encyclopedia.com/articles/05037History.html
3-The Holy Roman Empire http://www.heraldica.org/topics/national/hre.htm#external
From the web pages of http://www.heraldica.org/intro.htm Copyright © 1995-2001, François R. Velde
4-InfoPlease. com (Nature of the Roman Empire) http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858647.html
5--InfoPlease. com (Origins of the Roman Empire) http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858646.html
6- Comptonís Encyclopedia
7-German Geneology: Schwabia/Schwaben/Suevia http://www.genealogienetz.de/gene/reg/HIST/swabia.html
Bibliography at source
8 The Anglo Saxon Invasions; the Saxons, Angles and Jutes
9The Dark Age Web Mark Furnival, 1998 Webmaster http://www.btinternet.com/~mark.furnival/franks.htm
10 Gene Garman, The Poor Palatines http://www.sunnetworks.net/~ggarman/palatine.html
11 Friederich Engles The Peasants War
12 An Illustrated History of Germany, by Andre Maurios.
12b Mennonite Encyclopedia, Mennonite Publishing House, Scottdale, PA, 1957, transcribed by http://www.horseshoe.cc/pennadutch/places/germany/regions/palatinate/palatine.htm
13 Rise of Pietism in 17th Century Germany. Written by Ronald J. Gordon ~ Published April, 1998 ~ Last Updated, May, 1998 © European Origin of the Church of the Brethren.http://www.cob-net.org/pietism.htm
14 Professor Gerhard Rempel, Western New England College.
15 The Open Door Website. History: 17th Century http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/chap5130.html
16 The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.ÝÝ2001. http://www.bartleby.com/65/
17 Catholic Encyclopedia on line http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02353c.htm
18 Pennsylvania LEFEVRES by George Newton LeFevre and Franklin D. LeFevre, 1979.
19 Before and After The Nine Years' War (1688-1697) http://www.crosswinds.net/~japa_lennie/his103essay1.html
firstname.lastname@example.org/sourced (biblio. included)
20 infoPlease.com: Grand Alliance, War of the http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0821511.html
21German Geneology Rheinland-pfaltz Rhineland-Palatinate history email@example.com http://www.genealogienetz.de/gene/reg/RHE-PFA/rhein-p-his.html
22 Edward W. Spangler; The Annals of the Families of Caspar, Henry, Baltzer and George Spengler. York, Pennsylvania: The York Daily Publishing Co., 1896.
To Top of Page [ Our Germans Within The Vines]