for Colonization, major events in Europe & the arrival of
our first forebears
ca 1000 AD:
aux Meadows, Newfoundland is established by the Vikings. It is the
only discovered archeological site pertaining to Viking precense in the
New World and was discovered in 1960
Ferdinand and Isabella
succeed in expulsing the Moors from their last foothold in Granada signifying
the demise of Islam in Spain. They set up residence in
their newly won and magnifiscent fortress-palace the Alhambra
Cabot sees the North American Mainland before the Spanish,
having offered to do for England's Henry VII what Columbus had done for
Ferdinand and Isabella. [England, a second rate power at the time,
won a coup when Henry VII's son Henry VIII was contracted to Ferdinand
and Isabella's daughter Catharine of Aragon. Spain was the premier European
power at the time of the contract]
Calvin is Born
Beginnings of slave
trade to New World involving areas south of the present United States.
slave traders were the first to involve slaves in the africa / europe
/ new world "trade
triangle" . The Spanish soon followed.
" Bartolomé de
las Casas , Roman Catholic Priest of Chiapas in Mexico, suggested to
the Spanish Crown ìthe employment of a limited number of Negro slaves instead
of Indiansîin the Caribbean. By 1516, ìthe traffic in slaves was regulated
by an order permitting the transport of 4,000 Negroes annually from
Africa for sale (and slavery) in the New Worldî " 10
Smallpox epidemic raged through Vera Cruz,
Mexico. The 16th century smallpox epidemic in Mexico and Central America
killed about half of the Aztecs
assumes control of Mexico after destruction of Aztec state
assumes control of Mexico after destruction of Aztec state
First slave revolt in New World occurs
[Island holding both today's Domincan Republic and Haiti]
da Verrazano finds New York Bay and the Hudson River. The expanse of
the harbor , its deep waters accomodating large vessels, the depth of the
Hudson emptrying into it allowing river trade up and down for tremendous
miles and Manhattan Island's natural protection deep within the bay distant
from the small narrows providing water access and now with a bridge
named for this discover provided the circumstances that led to its later
The first Anabaptists
are known to exist in Germany and Switzerland [Pacifist and austere, the
anabaptists believed that baptism should occur at the age of cognizance,
not at birth. This concept, heretical to Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinists
alike, is in large part the reason for their persecution. They suffer for
centuries as a result of their faith. Although the type of punishment for
faith varied with time and locale, in the worst case scenarios mennonites
and other anabaptists were forced to leave their homes, cast out from towns,
imprisoned for their religion, tortured, burnt alive, and, in the
better case scenarios were not allowed to bury their dead with religious
ceremony, were not allowed to gather in groups to worship without fear
of imprisonment, while their marriages were not recognized.
voyage to new World: St. Lawrence River,Quebec, Montreal
leads expedition from New Mexico across Texas, Oklahoma, and eastern Kansas
Soto finds the Mississippi River
state sanctioned status in Germany with the signing of the Treaty
of Augsberg (granting the individual German City-States the right
to choose their own religion- (note that Luther lived 1483-1546)
, but Calvinists were not (Calvin lived 1509-1564) ."choosing their own
religion" only meant that a mortal Lord could choose his religion,
as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran, and that his populace was expected
to follow their MORTAL Lord's decision as to the manner of worship
of the Lord above. It would be nearly 100 years before the Calvinists also
receive State Sanctioned status,also by treaty. Nearly 100 years later
The Peace of Westphalia
ending the 30 Years War assured Calvinists a similar position of state
sanction in Germany, sharing that status with the Catholics and the Lutherans.
No other protestants wereincluded.
Jean Ribault begins
the French quest for a colony in the southern now US landing near the
St. Johns River (Florida) and establishing a colony called Chalesfort [on
present-day Parris Island, South Carolina]. On return to Europe the colony
failed and was abandoned.
Menéndez de Avilés founded St. Augustine, Florida,
and this became the first permanent European settlement in North America,
it being continuously populated since its founding.
The Spanish introduce
slavery in North America taking slaves to St Augustine12
A politically formed
marriage between Protestand Henry of Navarre [in then unanticipated succesion
later becoming King
Henry IV of France] and Catholic Princess
Margaret ]de Valois , occasions the St
Bartholomew's massacre in France, the result of the Queen mother
Catherine de Medici's jealousy of the Protestant Coligny's
influence on her son [and Margaret's brother] the Prince of France.The
new groom himself was very nearly killed, spared only after legnthy discourse
by the offending parties, while many more Protestants of France suffered
that fate, there being large numbers of them present for the marriage of
their prince. The St Bartholomewís Day Massacre
caused the death ofî 3,000 Huguenots in Paris. The fervor spread through
France and lasted until October despite royal orders for it to stop.
By the end, 70,000 Huguenots were murdered in France.
Once over, it led to the resumption of Civil War. This inquietude resultant
of the Massacre of St Bartholomew
led to Huegenot emmigration to neighboring Germany from which many french
Huguenots later left for the American colonies.
Two attempts to establish
a colony on Roanoke
Island are organized by Sir
Walter Raleigh. The second disappears without a trace save "CROATAN"
written on a tree. Its meaning and the settlers fater remain a mystery.
German anti anabaptist
activity worsens after a period of improvement
"the Lutheran Elector
Louis VI, 1576-83, who also took sharp measures against the Calvinists.
... began to expel the Anabaptists [dunkers, amish, mennonites, etc]
from the country [Germany] , confiscate their goods to be kept under curators.
If an Anabaptist let himself be persuaded to accept the state church, he
received his property back after an examination by the superintendent.
The superintendents and the pastors were reminded by an "electoral instruction"
of Aug. 1, 1579, "to refute Anabaptist errors clearly from the pulpit frequently
and to explain thoroughly the practice and benefits of the sacraments."
Obstinate Anabaptists were to be imprisoned in the tower on bread and water,
but were to be instructed both within the prison and outside several times,
"that they may be moved to real conversion." In cases of continued persistence
they were to be expelled from the country; this also happened to the Calvinists,
one of whom was called almost an Anabaptist." 11Our Barr
, Kundig, and Herr lines were devout Mennonites. and thus anabaptists,
early escaping to Penn's territories
of Navarre Bourbon is crowned Henry IV of France [17 years following
St Bartholomew's massacre
occasioned on his marriage] and converts to Catholicism. His conversion
was made in an attempt to unite divided France, for he knew he would never
capture the faith of the largely Catholic (90%) population. On acceding
he abandoned his own Protestant practice, feeling the peace of his
country might be found with a tolerant Catholic king [See 1598 when he
issues the Edict of Nantes protecting the French
leads a group of settlers to Newfoundland,
which he claims for Queen Elizabeth. Humphrey dies on the return
voyage, and the settlers left behind disappear.
de Navarre, now Henry IV King of France and converted to Catholocism,
issues the Edict
of Nantes which defined the rights of the French Protestants (AKA Huguenots
AKA French Calvinists). At the time of itís signing the King granted the
protestant French the right to worship in public, hold public office, assemble,
enter universities and administer their towns. The edict both gave and
denied the protestant French rights, and is considered conciliatory
to the Catholics although it remains a seriously important
document regarding religious freedom and one often cited for its political
and diplomatic genius. In regards to our American ancestors, the most important
effect of the Edict of Nantes is its revocation 87 years later (1685 )
by Louise XIV. [See year 1685]
Plymouth Company established a colony on the Kennebec River, in Maine
in 1607. The colony failed.
May 13: Arrival
to Va of the English aboard the Godspeed, Discovery and Susan Contant
. 104 male settlers arrive at site they nameJames Cittie and establish
the first permanent English settlement in the New World.
May 26: Paspahegh Indians
[part of the Powhatan Confederacy]attack
the colonists,killing two, wounding ten. [Paspahegh lands pertained
to now Charles City and James City Counties. ]
December 10: Capt.
John Smith leads expedition up the Chickahominy in search of food and
is captured. [The Chickahominy River is named for the region pertaining
to this tribe of the Powhatan confederacy]
December 29: John Smith
is brought before Powhatan; Smith
believes that Pocahontas,Powhatan's daughter, saves his life.
founds QUEBEC, adding it to the list of French settlements in
Powhatan delivers his
address to John Smith
January 1: Smith returns
to James Fort to find only 38 of the original 104 settlers remain.
September (?): The persons
of the second supply [ 70 new immigrants] arrives on the Mary
and Margaret, including an Elizabethan bed for Powhatan and a five-piece
barge to explore the Richmond Falls
November: . Jamestown's
first wedding occurs involving the maid to Mrs Forrest: Anne
Burras. who marries John Laydon, a carpenter. Both Mrs Forrest and
Anne Burras arrived in the second supply in Sept. They are felt the
first English women of Jamestown
Hudson, employed by the Dutch
East India Company, sails up the Hudson River in search of a passage
to the Indies.
supply" of nine ships and 500 immigrants leave England bound for Virginia,
and in August Seven vessels of the
third supply [second link] arrive in James Cittie with 200-300 passengers.
The flagship Sea Venture had been nearly destroyed by storm and its
150 persons were in uninhabited Bermuda.
John Smith is wounded in a gunpowder explosion and forced to return
to England. President Ratcliffe rows up the Pamunkey to bargain with
Powhatan for desperately needed food; he is captured by Indian women and
tortured to death.
The Jamestown inhabitants are devastated by hunger. The
Starving Time reduces the population to 60 gaunt survivors from the
previous fall's population of 500-600. John
Smith describes The Starving Time
Hudson explores Hudson Bay
May 23: Jamestown. 100
new settlers arrive in two ships, Deliverance
and Patience.[forged from the former
May 24: Lieutenant Governor
Sir Thomas Gates , arrived just the day before, proclaims martial law.
June 8: Lord De La Warr
arrives in the nick of time and prevents Gates and its "250 (?) settlers"
2 from returning to England and abandoning the colony. [the
question mark is provided by Virtual Jamestown in their own timeline
regarding this entry]
John Rolfe creates a
hybrid tobacco in effort for cash crop resultant of his unexpected stay
in the Caribbean with the Sea Venture
Lord De La Warr and
the Council issue the legal code (1612) which governs the Jamestown
colony until 1619. [These laws are remarkable for their offenses and punishments
and include pain of death for [among many other things] lying, stealing
flowers from a garden. or speaking impiously or maliciously against
" the holy and blessed Trinitie, or any of the three persons". They appear
Divine, Morall and Martial"
June 4: Captain Argall
captures Pocahontas and brings her to Jamestown as a hostage.
Powhatan is married
to John Rolfe, ending the First Anglo Powhatan War and creating a "first
family" of Virginia.
Shakespeare writes his
final play "the Tempest", felt to be based on the experience of flagship
Sea Venture of the
third supply bound for Virginia in 1609 and which had been shipwrecked
The Dutch establish
trading posts on Manhattan and at Fort Orange [Albany] up the Hudson. They
call their territorial possesions New Netherland.
The first crop
of Virginia Tobacco is shipped to England
First Anglo Powhatan War Begins a result of George Percy's actions
on August 9, 1610 when Percy and seventy men
went to the capital
town of Paspahegh where the English killed or injured fifity or more
people and captured a wife of Wowinchopunch,the weroance, and her children.
The Dutch make their
first settlement in New Jersey at Bergen.
The "Great Migration"
increases Jamestown's population from 400 to 4,500 but most die from
disease, starvation, and Indian attack. Within these numbers are Dr John
Woodson and his wife Sarah, who arrived in 1619, he was a surgeon.
Years War in Europe Begins. It pits Catholics against Protestants and
devastates Europe, particularly Germany.
[At the time of the
30 Years War about half of Germanyís states were Protestant and half
Catholic, with Lutheranism the only state recognized Protestant faith,
having recieved sanction in the 1550s with the Signing of the Treaty of
[The unpheaval caused
by this and subsequent wars in this "century of war" will yield the
cause of emmigration for most of our Palatine forebears found arriving
and populating Pennsylvania in the early 18th century. Germany was
a battle field throughout most of the 17th century.]
Virginia settlers procure
a share in their government through establishment of the FIRST REPRESENTATIVE
ASSEMBLY IN AMERICA, called The House of Burgesses
The General Assembly
meets in the choir of the Jamestown church; its first lawrequires tobacco
to be sold for at least threeshillings per pound.
Our First Ancestors
arrive to America in the form of Dr and
Mrs John Woodson, He was a Surgeon bound for the growing colony and
emmigrating from England. His descendancy cascades into our Pleasants and
Logan Lines [Howard relevant] .
90 Young Women are brought
to Jamestown and bartered for Tobacco; They are meant to serve as wives
to the former tenants.The VirginiaCompany prices them at "one hundredth
and fiftie[pounds] of the best leafe Tobacco"
A cargo of twenty African
slaves arrives on a Dutch ship at Jamestown. The Dutch privateer had taken
the slaves from a Spanish ship. 1These are often called
first black Americans. Although it appears that all record
of the ship is lost, and the name of the Captain as well, Virtual Jamestown
informs in their time line entry for this year " Twenty blacks are purchased
from a passing Portuguese slave ship bound fromLuanda, Angola, to Vera
Cruz." 2Virtual Jamestown also informs that theymay not
havebeen the first, since some 32 Africans were noted five months earlier
in a Virginia census of 1619. 2 John Rolfe wrote to England
informing of the exchange of " twenty some odd" blacks for food to
a Dutch ship that stopped in Jamestown to procure victuals.
August: Twenty blacks
are purchased from a passing Portuguese slave ship bound fromLuanda, Angola,
to Vera Cruz.
The Mayflower sails
from Holland and England to America (Plymouth)The Pilgrim Fathers landed
at Cape Cod November 11 and formed the FIRST SETTLEMENT IN NEW ENGLAND
AT PLYMOUTH (December 22). The FIRST REPUBLICAN FORM OF GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA
was established at Plymouth. The Pilgrims, before landing, signed an agreement
called "The Mayflower Compact." By this compact they established themselves
into a body politic, agreeing to be governed by the will of the majority.
This is evidence that the Pilgrims did not intend to be temporary residents
in the new world.
Sir Ferdinando Gorges
and John Mason obtained a grant of land between the Merrimac and Kennebec
Rivers from the Plymouth Company, and made a settlement at Saco, Maine.
March 22: The Second
Anglo Powhatan War begins when an Indian attack was made on Jamestown in
which our Jamestown Forebears were among the survivors. The Powhatan Indian
Attack against settlements immediately outside Jamestown caused the loss
of 347men, women, and children. , setting off a war that lasted a decade.A
Pamunkey Indian, Chanco, [christianized and with a brother who took part
in the attack who did not know of Chanco's actions] indirectly warns
Governor Wyatt and Jamestown mounts a successful defense. "Charles City,
the Ironworks, CollegeLand, and Martin's Hundred are all abandoned after
the massacre because many are concerned about the vulnerability of isolatedsettlements.
August. The English
attack the Powhatan Indians and put a price on the head of their chief,
Opechancanough. Conflicts continuefor the next ten years except for one
short period of peace.
The colony has a smaller-than-usual
harvest and is ironicallyforced to trade with the Indians for
corn and supplies but even though taking food by trade or force many went
hungry.. There isanother"starving time" . The mortality rate during the
winter of 1622-23 climbed due to malnutrition and disease - over four hundred
December 20: The Abigail
arrives with no food and infection; starvation further reduces the colony.
The epidemic kills twice as many people as died in the massacre, and the
colony's population is reduced to about 500; the colonists hold out hope
for the arrival of the Seaflower.
March 18: In Bermuda,
the Seaflower is blown updue to the negligence of the Captain's son.
April. Jamestown colonists
goon a trading expedition to obtain food from the Powhatan confederation
Indians. Negotiationsbreak down. About twenty colonists are killed and
others taken captive.
May: Captain William
Tucker concludes peacenegotiations with a Powhatan village by proposinga
toast with a drink laced with poison prepared by Dr. John Potts; 200 Powhatans
die instantly andanother 50 are slaughtered.
September: William Strachey
makes the lastknown reference to James Cittie; surveyor William Clayborne
lays out the streets of New Towne, a suburb outside the old James Fort.
The fort seems to have existed into themiddle of the 1620s, but as Jamestown
grew into a "New Town" to the east, written references to the original
The Dutch found their
settlement of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island
The Dutch erected Fort
Nassau on the Delaware River.
John Mason established
the first settlement in New Hampshire on the Piscataqua River.
In 1623 , in a muster
meant to assess the loss of the 1622 massacre, 6 persons unnamed
and identified as "Neggars" are found in the
muster list of Jamestown and residing in the home of Dr
John Woodson. They werepart of the twenty and some odd black persons
bartered for food by a passing Dutch ship in 1620.
May. Virginia becomes
a royal province due to loss of the Royal Charter from mismanagement of
the colony by the Va Company
"Since 1606, approximately
seventy-three hundred emigrants have sailed for the colony, and 6,040 have
died either en route or after arrival. However, the Privy Council argues
that that the colony has had a net increase of only 275 people since its
founding. The colony suffers from chronic food shortages and seems unable
to get a subsistence from its own efforts. The greatest death rate has
occurred between 1621 and 1623, during the period of the Great Migration.
The causes of the colony's low condition are numerous: over-cultivation
of tobacco; conflicts with the Powhatans, caused or aggravated by the colonists'
dependence on them for food; poorly coordinated arrivals of colonists and
supplies; and an unhealthy location and bad water supply that causes chronic
ill health and high death rates. The Company is bankrupt and divided between
factions led by Sir Edwin Sandys and Sir Thomas Smith. In sum, the problems
are complex and various, and the Company, riven by factional fighting,
is unable to resolve them. Despite the loss of its charter, the Company
lingers on until 1630." 7
Peter Minuit, director-general of New Netherland, purchased Manhattan Island
from the Indians for $24.
The Swedes settled in Delaware
The permanent settlement
of Massachusetts Bay Colony, in New England, began by the settlement of
SALEM under JOHN ENDICOTT.
BOSTON WAS FOUNDED Puritan
The first general court
in New England met there October 19
Elizabeth Ferris is
born in the 1630s in Prince George Co., Va
Charter issued for the
colony of Maryland, named for Queen Henrietta Maria
Driven by "the sacred
duty of finding a refuge for his Roman Catholic brethren," George Calvert
(1580-1632) obtained a charter from Charles I in 1632 for the territory
between Pennsylvania and Virginia. This Maryland charter offered no guidelineson
religion, although it was assumed that Catholics would not be molested
in the new colony. In 1634 two ships, the Ark and the Dove, brought
the first settlers to Maryland. Aboard were approximately two hundred people
Lord Baltimore sent
out Leonard Calvert who makes the first permanent settlement in Maryland
at ST. MARY'S
Puritans emigrated from
Massachusetts Bay to the Connecticut River. There were various causes for
this emigration from Massachusetts Bay: 1. The aristocratic government
of Massachusetts Bay was much disliked; 2. There was not enough available
fertile land; 3. There was need for frontier posts against the Dutch and
Indians; 4. Ambitious leaders desired an opportunity for their abilities.
The Connecticut towns three years later drew up the Fundamental Orders
of Connecticut. By 1653 there were twelve towns in Connecticut.
Harvard College was
Roger Williams establishes
Providence and proclaims complete religious freedom.
A Swedish settlement
was made near Wilmington, on the Delaware when Captain Peter
Minuit purchases land and the era of New
Sweden in the New World begins.
Ann Hutchinson sets
up community in Rhode Island. Mrs. Ann Hutchinson opposed the
religious government of Massachusetts Bay and held that every person could
make his peace with God without the intervention of an established Church.
The Puritans, therefore, expelled her from the colony.
Two conservative Puritans,
Eaton and Davenport, settle New Haven . It was a strict "Bible Commonwealth."
Susannah BATES is born
in Middletown, Bruton Parish, York Co. VA
Jane LARCOME is born
in Curles, Henrico County, Virginia
Evidence of First Slave
Markets in America2
The public sale of slaves
in Jamestown begins this year7
The first printing press
is set up at Harvard College. Stephen Daye was the printer, and THE
FIRST AMERICAN BOOK was "The Bay Psalm Book."
Charles I allows
the Colonists to call their general assembly allowing partial self rule
Montreal Quebec founded
English Civil War Begins
as a result of the Reformation and its counter effects
April 18: The Third
Anglo Powhatan War begins when Chief Opechancanough leads Indians in an
attack, killing nearly 500 colonists. Dr
John Woodson is one of them.
is captured and carried by stretcher to Jamestown. He is found shot , with
various records stating it was in the back, while in prison, on the
streets of Jamestown, by colonists, and by the sentry posted to gaurd
English Civil War ends
with Puritan Victory
Goerge Fox founds the
Society of Friends [Quakers]
[The 30 years war ends.
Basically in the signing of the treaty of the Treaty of Westphalia , the
Treaty of Augsburg (almost 100 years earlier) was reaffirmed, and the only
real change for our German forebears was that Calvinism was recognized.
What it meant to be recognized as a state sanctioned church is that a Lord
of the city states could practise his preferred religion without fear of
sanction against him, as long as it was a State sanctioned alternative
to Catholicism, and this priveledge extended to his populace. Those not
practising the religion of the Lord often suffered as a result no matter
what his religion. Although initially the only alternative to Catholicism
that enjoyed state sanction was Lutheranism, followed by a third state
sanctioned religion with Calvinism nearly 100 years later,
other Protestant doctrines were practised and the state sanctioning of
the three religions mentioned caused all three to oppress the newer sects,
just as the Lutherans joined strenuously with the Catholics in trying to
erradicate Calvanism. These and constant warfare were the conditions leading
to the emmigration of our forebears from the Palatinate. ]
" The real losers in
the war were the German people. Over 300,000 had been killed in battle.
Millions of civilians had died of malnutrition and disease, and wandering,
undisciplined troops had robbed, burned, and looted almost at will. Most
authorities believe that the population of the Empire dropped from about
21,000,000 to 13,500,000 between 1618 and 1648. Even if they exaggerate,
the Thirty Years War remains one of the most terrible in history." 4
peasants resorted to cannibalism. It is estimated that half the population
The Iroquois destroy
the Hurons and their Jesuit Mission
Charles I is beheaded
; Oliver Cromwell comes to power
the Maryland Assembly passed an act stipulating that no Trinitarian Christian
"shall from henceforth be any waies troubled, molested, or discountenanced,
for, or in respect of his or her religion nor in the free exercise thereof
within this Province." "6
The first Indian Reservation
is created near Richmond, Virginia
The Quaker Society of
Friends formed around a charismatic leader George Fox. They took puritan
ideals steps further.
The settlement of ALBEMARLE,
North Carolina, was made by Virginia pioneers.
John FLEMING first appears
in the Records of the Land Office in Richmond VA
"For some decades
Jews had flourished in Dutch-held areas of Brazil, but a Portuguese conquest
of the area in 1654 confronted them with the prospect of the introduction
of the Inquisition, which had already burned a Brazilian Jew at the stake
in 1647. A shipload of twenty-three Jewish refugees from Dutch Brazil arrived
in New Amsterdam (soon to become New York) in 1654. By the next year, this
small community had established religious services in the city"6
New Sweden with its center on the Delaware River.
Holland was given a
free hand after the Peace of Westphalia (1648), which terminated the "THIRTY-YEARS'
WAR" in Europe. Sweden definitely abandoned American colonization to England
and Holland after her defeat.
Susannah TARLETON is
born in New Kent, Va [St. Peter's Parrish]
By 1658 Jews had arrived
in Newport, Rhode Island, also seeking religious liberty.6
Charles REED isborn
about 1660 in Burlington NJ. Father said to be Thomas of that place.
The monarchy is restored
in England following Oliver Cromwell's death in 1558. Charles II accedes
to the thrown
slavery with a law that makes the status of the mother determine slave
or free status of the child
port of entry status for entry to Virginia is ended
The British Annex New
Netherlands and rename New Amsterdam New York
John Pleasants emigrates
to Va from England ca 1665 ; settled Henrico County
Hostilities in Scotland
against the Presbyterians heightens. The McCurdy brothers, including PethericìOf
The Cairnî leave their native Bute bound for Ireland in an open boat and
blinding Snowstorm. He settles in Antrim.
CHARLESTON, South Carolina,
The Mennonites in the
Palatinate were increased in number in 1671-72 when persecution in Switzerland
reached its climax...On Nov. 2, 1671, Jakob Everling, the preacher of the
Obersulzen congregation, reported that 200 persons had come to the Palatinate,
some of whom were cripples, old people of 70-90 years, and families of
eight to ten children. They arrived destitute with their bundles on their
backs and their children in their arms.]
explores north of Missouri near present day Chicago
Marquette and Joliet
reach headwaters of Mississippi and explore Arkansas
Bacons Rebellion in
Virginia in which Nathaniel Bacon openly defied Governor Berkeley in waging
war against the Indians, and he burns Jamestown to the ground before dying
of dysentery on October 26.
La Salle explores the
Dorothy CARY is born
The French colonial
empire, reaching from Quebec to the mouth of the Mississippi River
By 1680, 10,000 Quakers
had been imprisoned in England, and 243 had died oftorture and mistreatment
in the King's jails. Thisreign of terror impelled Friends to seek refuge
inNew Jersey in the 1670s, where they soon became well entrenched.6
WILLIAM PENN secured
a charter and a grant of land from Charles II, which included Delaware
William Penn, a religious
nonconformist espousing the cause of the Society of Friends (Quakers) comes
to establish Pennsylvania, on a large land grant he received the year before
from Charles II. One third of the 100 Quakers die of smallpox during the
two-month journey. Penn founds Philadelphia. German Mennonites quickly
migrate to Pennsylvania, settling near Philadelphia and spreading into
the Lehigh and Cumberland valleys.
Amy CHILD Alone Buys
500 acres from Penn, came to America between 1681-1686
La Salle claims Louisiana
territory for France and takes control of the Mississippi Valley
William Penn founds
Pennsylvania on the basis ofreligious toleration. ìWhen Wm. Penn came to
Phila. in 1682 there were about 100 persons in the city, most of them living
in caves made in the bluff fronting the river Delaware; the next year there
were 80 houses, and the population had increased to 500.--Egle's "Hist.
of Pa." p. 1021.
George EMLEN arrives
Philadelphia from England
Peace Treaty between
William Penn and North American Indians
First German immigrants
come to North America -
The first group of Germans
to settle in Pennsylvania arrived in Philadelphia in 1683 from Krefeld,
Germany, and included Mennonites and possibly some Dutch Quakers.6
By 1685 as many as 8,000
Quakers had come to Pennsylvania. Although the Quakers may have resembled
n some religious
beliefs and practices, they differed with them over the necessity
of compelling religious uniformity in society.6
[In 1685 a Quaker who
had previously been a Mennonite, Peter Schumacher of Kriegsheim near Worms,
emigrated to Germantown, Pa.] 11 This advents German immigration
France's Louis XIV revokes
the Henry of Navarre [Henry IV of France] Edict of Nantes and exiles
thousands of French Protestants.The effect of the Revocation involved
much of Europe, it could not be contained to France alone, and so involved
Germany . As a result of the mass migration caused by the Revocation and
its effects, Holland, Switzerland and England also became involved .The
effects of the French civil war precipitated by theRevocation
of Henry's Edict of Nantes 87 years after its introduction
(1598) by Louis XIV caused one more period of disaster for Europe. In retracting
protection of the protestant French Louis XIV caused a tremendous
exodous of many persons, among them the trades and crafts people
upon whom France depended, into other areas of Europe. The economic
disaster in France spilled into europe, with thousands of Huguenots
fleeing to other areas, including neighboring Germany and the Palatinate
within it. The La Fevre and Ferree families emmigration out of France
and ultimate emmigration to Pennsylvania and Penn's protection
is only one example. These families are allied with many of our early lines
in Pennsylvania of the early- mid 18th century. ]
"Gabriel Thomas of England,
in his "Narratives of Early Penna., & West Jersey" published in 1698,
says: "Many fine houses in Phila. were built of brick, of three stories
high, and as many several families in each; there was also a fine Town
House, Market House & Prison." He also states that "about 20 fat bullocks
are killed every week, besides calves, sheep & hogs, to supply the
William of Orange lands
The French Sun King
marches into the Palatinate and claims it, sparking the War of the Grand
Alliance [lAKA The Nine Years' War, AKA the War of the Palatinate,AKA
the War of the League of Augsburg, ] which started in 1689 and which
lasted until 1697. Germany, and the Palatinate in particular is again in
ruins. "Louis XIV suddenly precipitated eighty thousand troops on
these people within the short period of seven weeks, &changed that
Paradise into a desert. Heidelberg, Mannheim and Worms were looted and
partly burned, twelve hundred villages were razed to the ground and 40,000
inhabitants robbed of all they had. For example, during the last night
of a French commander's stay in one of these towns, he caused
it to be socompletely &methodically plundered, that he had himself
nothing but straw to sleep on; & the next day this bedding was employed
in setting fire to the town, which was presently reduced to ashes. Since
the day of the Huns, Europe beheld no such devastation. The Emperor of
Germany who should have protected the Palatinate, had his hands full
with the Turks just then, &could do nothing to help them. ì4
begins in Salem, Massachusetts. Over the next two years, 20 persons are
executed after trials find them guilty of being witches.
William Garrett emmigrated
to Darby , Penna. sometime before 1694. Dtr Hannah is married in
Phila that year
Last remains of Maya
civilization destroyed by Spanish in the Yucatan of Mexico
The War of The Grand
LOGAN accompanies William Penn on his second crossing to his colony
and served as his secretary.
The capital of Virginia
is moved from Jamestown to Williamsburg
Reaches 260,000 The three largest cities in the British North American
colonies are Boston and Philadelphia with about 12,000 residents each,
followed by New York, with 5,000 residents. The total colonial population,
not counting Indians and slaves, is 260,000.
"in speaking of Philadelphia
Egle, in his "History of Pa."writes that there were 700 houses and
a population of about 4500 in the city in 1700
The War of the SPanish
Succesion begins, and with it, the French again marchnto the Palatinate.
Robert Heath arrives
from Staffordshire, England, about 1701.
The people of the Palatinate,
long suffering from war and its wholescale devastation are hit with the
worst winter of their known history. The Rhine river was frozen for 5 weeks,
cattle died in their stalls, birds fell frozen from the air. Thousands
of germans flee as a result, and Londoners were astonished to learn that
thousands of inn keepers, professionals, and farmers of the Rhein
were camped under their London Bridge. Few tarried in England. They were
the start of the massive German immigration to the new world.
Mennonite Bishop Hans
Herr arrives 1709/10 settling south side of Pequa Creek, Lancaster, PA
Hostilities to Mennonites
in Germany increases under "Elector Charles Philip, 1716-42, for he doubled
their protection fees, limited their right to purchase land, seeking thus
to prevent the number of Mennonite families in the Palatinate to rise above
200. In the spring of 1717 some 300 Palatine Mennonites were in Rotterdam
to embark for Pennsylvania where religious liberty was unrestricted; they
received financial support from the Dutch Mennonites. (Editors note: THIS
is the group in which Hans Herr embarked for America). mennonite
Melchior BRENNEMAN arrived
24 Aug 1717 Via The Port Of Philadelphia, Pa. , died New Danville, Lancaster,
France founds New Orleans
Yost Swope arrives to
America about this year from the Palatinate
Beginning in the 1720s
significantly larger numbers of German Lutherans and German Reformed arrived
in Pennsylvania. Many were motivated by economic considerations.
English Settlement 1607- 1691 [a timeline presented by Annenberg/CPB
Virtual Jamestown Timeline
The Mennonite Encyclopedia , Mennonite Publishing House, Scottdale,
Gerhard Rempel, Western New England College.
5. Edward W. Spangler.
The Annals of the Families of Caspar, Henry, Baltzer and George Spengler.
York, Pennsylvania: The York Daily Publishing Co., 1896.
and the Founding of the American Republic. Part of the Library of Congress
I R G I N I A R E C O R D S T I M E
L I N E part of
the Thomas Jefferson Papers at the Library of Congress
8. the Pages of
Virtual Jamestown , included but not limited to the
Powhatan Indian Attack of March 22, 1622
Library of Canada
on Apology for Slavery by Dr Kwame Nantambu
11. Mennonite Encyclopedia
Mennonite Publishing House, Scottdale, PA, 1957 Sited by firstname.lastname@example.org
(0001-2001). From Historymole.com
12. Yale Center for International and Area Studies. The
Amistad Case Abolitionism Timeline